Plasminogen in cerebrospinal fluid originates from circulating blood.

Abstract : Plasminogen activation is a ubiquitous source of fibrinolytic and proteolytic activity. Besides its role in prevention of thrombosis, plasminogen is involved in inflammatory reactions in the central nervous system. Plasminogen has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with inflammatory diseases; however, its origin remains controversial, as the blood-CSF barrier may restrict its diffusion from blood. We investigated the origin of plasminogen in CSF using Alexa Fluor 488-labelled rat plasminogen injected into rats with systemic inflammation and blood-CSF barrier dysfunction provoked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Near-infrared fluorescence imaging and immunohistochemistry fluorescence microscopy were used to identify plasminogen in brain structures, its concentration and functionality were determined by Western blotting and a chromogenic substrate assay, respectively. In parallel, plasminogen was investigated in CSF from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 15), multiple sclerosis (n = 19) and noninflammatory neurological diseases (n = 8). Endogenous rat plasminogen was detected in higher amounts in the CSF and urine of LPS-treated animals as compared to controls. In LPS-primed rats, circulating Alexa Fluor 488-labelled rat plasminogen was abundantly localized in the choroid plexus, CSF and urine. Plasminogen in human CSF was higher in Guillain-Barré syndrome (median = 1.28 ng/μl (interquartile range (IQR) = 0.66 to 1.59)) as compared to multiple sclerosis (median = 0.3 ng/μl (IQR = 0.16 to 0.61)) and to noninflammatory neurological diseases (median = 0.27 ng/μl (IQR = 0.18 to 0.35)). Our findings demonstrate that plasminogen is transported from circulating blood into the CSF of rats via the choroid plexus during inflammation. Our data suggest that a similar mechanism may explain the high CSF concentrations of plasminogen detected in patients with inflammation-derived CSF barrier impairment.
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Journal of Neuroinflammation, BioMed Central, 2014, 11 (1), pp.154. 〈10.1186/s12974-014-0154-y〉
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Anna Mezzapesa, Cyrille Orset, Laurent Plawinski, Loic Doeuvre, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, et al.. Plasminogen in cerebrospinal fluid originates from circulating blood.. Journal of Neuroinflammation, BioMed Central, 2014, 11 (1), pp.154. 〈10.1186/s12974-014-0154-y〉. 〈inserm-01073631v2〉

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