Impact d'une stimulation transcrânienne par courant continu (tDCS) frontal sur le réseau dopaminergique chez le sujet sain

Abstract : Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is used to modulate neuronal activity in the brain. It consists in applying a small constant current between two electrodes placed over the scalp. Two frontal tDCS montages have shown promises in modulating cognitive abilities and/or helping to alleviate clinical symptoms. However, the effects of tDCS on brain physiology are still poorly understood. The aim of this thesis work was to clarify brain mechanisms underlying frontal tDCS in healthy subjects, specifically in relation to the dopaminergic system. Using a double blind sham-controlled design, we combined a single session of tDCS online with several imaging techniques (PET or simultaneous PET-MRI) with the subject at rest. A first study (n=32, 2mA, 20min) showed that bifrontal tDCS induced an increase in extracellular dopamine in the ventral striatum, involved in the reward-motivation network, after the stimulation period. A second study (n=30, 1mA, 30min) showed that fronto-temporal tDCS induced an increase in extracellular dopamine in the executive part of striatum as well as a decrease in perfusion in a region part of the default mode network (DMN), after the stimulation period. The data analysis of this study is still ongoing. Overall, the present work provides evidence that a single session of frontal tDCS impacts the dopaminergic system in regions connected to the stimulated cortical areas. Therefore, levels of dopamine activity and reactivity should be new elements to consider for a general hypothesis of brain modulation by frontal tDCS
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Clara Fonteneau. Impact d'une stimulation transcrânienne par courant continu (tDCS) frontal sur le réseau dopaminergique chez le sujet sain. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1079⟩. ⟨tel-01889175⟩

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