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Journal Articles European Urology Year : 2022

Genomics of Clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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Abstract

Context: Although antiangiogenic treatments and immunotherapies have significantly improved the prognosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), many patients will develop resistance, leading to treatment failure. Genetic tumor heterogeneity is a major cause of this resistance. Objective: To perform a meta-analysis of genomic data for clear-cell RCC obtained from primary tumors and metastases to assess the prevalence of gene mutations and copy number alterations (CNAs). Evidence acquisition: Articles were selected from Medline and Embase libraries using the search algorithm ("Kidney Neoplasms"[Mesh] OR "Renal Cell Carcinoma") AND ("Genomics"[Mesh] OR "Mutation") from January 1999 to February 2021. A critical review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Ninety-three publications were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis. Evidence synthesis: Our meta-analysis included a total 14 696 patients, 14 299 primary tumor samples, and 969 metastatic samples. We evaluated the overall and subgroup prevalence of gene mutations and CNAs, including comparisons between primary tumors and metastases. In particular, for metastases we observed that the mutation prevalence was significantly more marked for ten genes compared to primary tumors, with no or little heterogeneity across studies. The VHL mutation prevalence increased significantly from 64% in primary tumors to 75% in metastases (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in CNA prevalence from primary tumors to metastases for chromosomes 1p36.11, 9p21.3, and 18 in terms of losses, and for chromosomes 1q21.3, 7q36.3, 8q, and 20q11.21 in terms of gains. CDKN2A, also called p16 and involved in cell-cycle progression, is located at the 9p21.3 locus and was lost in 76% of metastatic samples. ASXL1, located on 20p11.21 and amplified in 50% of metastatic RCCs compared to 21% of primary tumors (p < 0.001), is closely linked to BAP1 function. Conclusions: Our results underline the added value of preferential biopsies on RCC metastases to fully explore the biology of metastatic disease for therapeutic purposes. Patient summary: We reviewed the literature on genetic mutations in primary tumors and metastatic lesions in kidney cancer. Our pooled results for all the relevant studies show a higher level of mutations in metastases than in primary tumors. This highlights the importance of taking biopsies of metastases to analyze genetic mutations and potentially guide selection of the most suitable treatment strategy.
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inserm-03841036 , version 1 (06-11-2022)

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Thi Oanh Bui, van Tu Dao, van Tai Nguyen, Jean-Paul Feugeas, Frédéric Pamoukdjian, et al.. Genomics of Clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. European Urology, 2022, 81 (4), pp.349-361. ⟨10.1016/j.eururo.2021.12.010⟩. ⟨inserm-03841036⟩
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