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Fluconazole in hypercalciuric patients with increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels: the prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind FLUCOLITH trial

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Hypercalciuria is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders associated with nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis possibly leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone complications in adults. Orphan diseases with different underlying primary pathophysiology share inappropriately increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels and hypercalciuria, e.g., hypersensitivity to vitamin D and renal phosphate wasting. Their management is challenging, typically based on hyperhydration and dietary advice. The antifungal azoles are known to inhibit the 1α-hydroxylase and therefore decrease 1,25(OH)(2)D levels; they are commonly used, with well described pharmacokinetic and tolerability data. Fluconazole has been successfully reported to reduce calciuria in patients with CYP24A1 or SLC34A3 mutations, with no safety warnings. Thus, based on these case reports, we hypothesize that fluconazole is effective to decrease and normalize calciuria in patients with hypercalciuria and increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. METHODS: The FLUCOLITH trial is a prospective, interventional, randomized in parallel groups (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 60 patients (10-60 years) with nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis history, hypercalciuria (\textgreater 0.1 mmol/kg/day), increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels (\textgreater 150 pmol/L), and 25-OH-D levels \textgreater20 nmol/L will be included. Inclusions will be performed only from mid-September to the beginning of February to avoid bias due to sunlight-induced vitamin D synthesis. The primary endpoint will be the proportion of patients with normalization of 24-h calciuria between baseline and 16 weeks, or with a relative decrease of at least 30% of 24-h calciuria in patients who still display at W16 a 24-h hypercalciuria. DISCUSSION: The current challenge is to propose an efficient treatment to patients with hypercalciuria and increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels in order to prevent later complications and notably CKD that can ultimately lead to end-stage renal disease. Based on improvement of knowledge in phosphate/calcium metabolism, pathophysiology and genetics, the "off-label" use of fluconazole was recently reported to be useful in hypercalciuric patients with increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. Thus, the FLUCOLITH study is a unique opportunity to develop a new indication of a well-known and not expensive drug in orphan renal diseases, the ultimate objective being the secondary prevention of CKD worsening in these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04495608 . Registered on July 23, 2020.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 26, 2022 - 11:54:45 AM
Last modification on : Friday, November 11, 2022 - 3:53:03 AM

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A. Bertholet-Thomas, A. Portefaix, S. Flammier, C. Dhelens, F. Subtil, et al.. Fluconazole in hypercalciuric patients with increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels: the prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind FLUCOLITH trial. Trials, 2022, 23 (1), pp.499. ⟨10.1186/s13063-022-06302-z⟩. ⟨inserm-03830404⟩

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