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Chitin-glucan supplementation improved postprandial metabolism and altered gut microbiota in subjects at cardiometabolic risk in a randomized trial

Abstract : Chitin-glucan (CG), an insoluble dietary fiber, has been shown to improve cardiometabolic disorders associated with obesity in mice. Its effects in healthy subjects has recently been studied, revealing its interaction with the gut microbiota. In this double-blind, randomized, cross-over, twice 3-week exploratory study, we investigated the impacts of CG on the cardiometabolic profile and gut microbiota composition and functions in 15 subjects at cardiometabolic risk. They consumed as a supplement 4.5 g of CG daily or maltodextrin as control. Before and after interventions, fasting and postprandial metabolic parameters and exhaled gases (hydrogen [H(2)] and methane [CH(4)]) were evaluated. Gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis), fecal concentrations of bile acids, long- and short-chain fatty acids (LCFA, SCFA), zonulin, calprotectin and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) were analyzed. Compared to control, CG supplementation increased exhaled H(2) following an enriched-fiber breakfast ingestion and decreased postprandial glycemia and triglyceridemia response to a standardized test meal challenge served at lunch. Of note, the decrease in postprandial glycemia was only observed in subjects with higher exhaled H(2), assessed upon lactulose breath test performed at inclusion. CG decreased a family belonging to Actinobacteria phylum and increased 3 bacterial taxa: Erysipelotrichaceae UCG.003, Ruminococcaceae UCG.005 and Eubacterium ventriosum group. Fecal metabolites, inflammatory and intestinal permeability markers did not differ between groups. In conclusion, we showed that CG supplementation modified the gut microbiota composition and improved postprandial glycemic response, an early determinant of cardiometabolic risk. Our results also suggest breath H(2) production as a non-invasive parameter of interest for predicting the effectiveness of dietary fiber intervention.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-03755433
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Submitted on : Monday, August 22, 2022 - 8:43:37 AM
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H. Ranaivo, Z. Zhang, M. Alligier, L. van den Berghe, M. Sothier, et al.. Chitin-glucan supplementation improved postprandial metabolism and altered gut microbiota in subjects at cardiometabolic risk in a randomized trial. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2022, 12 (1), pp.8830. ⟨10.1038/s41598-022-12920-z⟩. ⟨inserm-03755433⟩

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