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Journal Articles EBioMedicine Year : 2022

T cell response against SARS-CoV-2 persists after one year in patients surviving severe COVID-19

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, the initial response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by major immune dysfunctions. The capacity of these severe patients to mount a robust and persistent SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response despite the presence of severe immune alterations during the ICU stay is unknown. METHODS: Critically ill COVID-19 patients were sampled five times during the ICU stay and 9 and 13 months afterwards. Immune monitoring included counts of lymphocyte subpopulations, HLA-DR expression on monocytes, plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and T cell proliferation in response to three SARS-CoV-2 antigens. FINDINGS: Despite the presence of major lymphopenia and decreased monocyte HLA-DR expression during the ICU stay, convalescent critically ill COVID-19 patients consistently generated adaptive and humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 maintained for more than one year after hospital discharge. Patients with long hospital stays presented with stronger anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response but no difference in anti-SARS-CoV2 IgG levels. INTERPRETATION: Convalescent critically ill COVID-19 patients consistently generated a memory immune response against SARS-CoV-2 maintained for more than one year after hospital discharge. In recovered individuals, the intensity of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response was dependent on length of hospital stay. FUNDING: This observational study was supported by funds from the Hospices Civils de Lyon, Fondation HCL, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University and Région Auvergne Rhône-Alpes and by partial funding by REACTing (Research and ACTion targeting emerging infectious diseases) INSERM, France and a donation from Fondation AnBer (http://fondationanber.fr/).
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Dates and versions

inserm-03755215 , version 1 (22-08-2022)

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F. Venet, M. Gossez, F. Bidar, M. Bodinier, R. Coudereau, et al.. T cell response against SARS-CoV-2 persists after one year in patients surviving severe COVID-19. EBioMedicine, 2022, 78, pp.103967. ⟨10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.103967⟩. ⟨inserm-03755215⟩
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