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Journal Articles European Journal of Anaesthesiology Year : 2022

Effects of methylene blue on microcirculatory alterations following cardiac surgery: A prospective cohort study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Methylene blue is used as rescue therapy to treat catecholamine-refractory vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery. However, its microcirculatory effects remain poorly documented. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study microcirculatory abnormalities in refractory vasoplegic syndrome following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and assess the effects of methylene blue. DESIGN: A prospective open-label cohort study. SETTING: 20-Bed ICU of a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: 25 Adult patients receiving 1.5 mg kg-1 of methylene blue intravenously for refractory vasoplegic syndrome (defined as norepinephrine requirement more than 0.5 μg kg-1 min-1) to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) more than 65 mmHg and cardiac index (CI) more than 2.0 l min-1 m-2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complete haemodynamic set of measurements at baseline and 1 h after the administration of methylene blue. Sublingual microcirculation was investigated by sidestream dark field imaging to obtain microvascular flow index (MFI), total vessel density, perfused vessel density and heterogeneity index. Microvascular reactivity was assessed by peripheral near-infrared (IR) spectroscopy combined with a vascular occlusion test. We also performed a standardised measurement of capillary refill time. RESULTS: Despite normalised CI (2.6 [2.0 to 3.8] l min-1 m-2) and MAP (66 [55 to 76] mmHg), patients with refractory vasoplegic syndrome showed severe microcirculatory alterations (MFI \textless 2.6). After methylene blue infusion, MFI significantly increased from 2.0 [0.1 to 2.5] to 2.2 [0.2 to 2.8] (P = 0.008), as did total vessel density from 13.5 [8.3 to 18.5] to 14.9 [10.1 to 14.7] mm mm-2 (P = 0.02) and perfused vessel density density from 7.4 [0.1 to 11.5] to 9.1 [0 to 20.1] mm mm-2 (P = 0.02), but with wide individual variation. Microvascular reactivity assessed by tissue oxygen resaturation speed also increased from 0.5 [0.1 to 1.8] to 0.7 [0.1 to 2.7]% s-1 (P = 0.002). Capillary refill time remained unchanged throughout the study. CONCLUSION: In refractory vasoplegic syndrome following cardiac surgery, we found microcirculatory alterations despite normalised CI and MAP. The administration of methylene blue could improve microvascular perfusion and reactivity, and partially restore the loss of haemodynamic coherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04250389.
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Dates and versions

inserm-03755206 , version 1 (22-08-2022)

Identifiers

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C. Maurin, P. Portran, R. Schweizer, B. Allaouchiche, S. Junot, et al.. Effects of methylene blue on microcirculatory alterations following cardiac surgery: A prospective cohort study. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 2022, 39 (4), pp.333-341. ⟨10.1097/eja.0000000000001611⟩. ⟨inserm-03755206⟩
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