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Journal Articles (Review Article) Frontiers in Physiology Year : 2021

Ornithine Transcarbamylase - From Structure to Metabolism: An Update

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Abstract

Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC; EC 2.1.3.3) is a ubiquitous enzyme found in almost all organisms, including vertebrates, microorganisms, and plants. Anabolic, mostly trimeric OTCs catalyze the production of L-citrulline from L-ornithine which is a part of the urea cycle. In eukaryotes, such OTC localizes to the mitochondrial matrix, partially bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane and part of channeling multi-enzyme assemblies. In mammals, mainly two organs express OTC: the liver, where it is an integral part of the urea cycle, and the intestine, where it synthesizes citrulline for export and plays a major role in amino acid homeostasis, particularly of L-glutamine and L-arginine. Here, we give an overview on OTC genes and proteins, their tissue distribution, regulation, and physiological function, emphasizing the importance of OTC and urea cycle enzymes for metabolic regulation in human health and disease. Finally, we summarize the current knowledge of OTC deficiency, a rare X-linked human genetic disorder, and its emerging role in various chronic pathologies.
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inserm-03582077 , version 1 (21-02-2022)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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M. Couchet, C. Breuillard, C. Corne, J. Rendu, Béatrice Morio, et al.. Ornithine Transcarbamylase - From Structure to Metabolism: An Update. Frontiers in Physiology, 2021, 12, pp.748249. ⟨10.3389/fphys.2021.748249⟩. ⟨inserm-03582077⟩
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