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Anterior gradient protein 2 is a marker of tumor aggressiveness in breast cancer and favors chemotherapy‑induced senescence escape

Abstract : Among the different chemotherapies available, genotoxic drugs are widely used. In response to these drugs, particularly doxorubicin, tumor cells can enter into senescence. Chemotherapy‑induced senescence (CIS) is a complex response. Long described as a definitive arrest of cell proliferation, the present authors and various groups have shown that this state may not be complete and could allow certain cells to reproliferate. The mechanism could be due to the activation of new signaling pathways. In the laboratory, the proteins involved in these pathways and triggering cell proliferation were studied. The present study determined a new role for anterior gradient protein 2 (AGR2) in vivo in patients and in vitro in a senescence escape model. AGR2's implication in breast cancer patients and proliferation of senescent cells was assessed based on a SWATH‑MS proteomic study of patients' samples and RNA interference technology on cell lines. First, AGR2 was identified and it was found that its concentration is higher in the serum of patients with breast cancer and that this high concentration is associated with metastasis occurrence. An inverse correlation between intratumoral AGR2 expression and the senescence marker p16 was also observed. This observation led to the study of the role of AGR2 in the CIS escape model. In this model, it was found that AGR2 is overexpressed in cells during senescence escape and that its loss considerably reduces this phenomenon. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracellular form of AGR2 stimulated the reproliferation of senescent cells. The power of proteomic analysis based on the SWATH‑MS approach allowed the present study to highlight the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/AKT signaling pathway in the senescence escape mechanism mediated by AGR2. Analysis of the two signaling pathways revealed that AGR2 modulated RICTOR and AKT phosphorylation. All these results showed that AGR2 expression in sera and tumors of breast cancer patients is a marker of tumor progression and metastasis occurrence. They also showed that its overexpression regulates CIS escape via activation of the mTOR/AKT signaling pathway.
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Contributor : Olivier Coqueret Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Thursday, January 13, 2022 - 11:36:14 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, April 27, 2022 - 4:07:27 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, April 14, 2022 - 6:37:42 PM


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Amine Maarouf, Alice Boissard, Cécile Henry, Géraldine Leman, Olivier Coqueret, et al.. Anterior gradient protein 2 is a marker of tumor aggressiveness in breast cancer and favors chemotherapy‑induced senescence escape. International Journal of Oncology, Spandidos Publications, 2021, 60 (1), pp.5. ⟨10.3892/ijo.2021.5295⟩. ⟨inserm-03524450⟩



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