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Accuracy of malaria diagnostic tests performed on non-invasively collected samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract : Background: During the last decade, many studies have assessed the performance of malaria tests on non-invasively collected specimens, but no systematic review has hitherto estimated the overall performance of these tests. We report here the first meta-analysis estimating the diagnostic performance of malaria diagnostic tests performed on saliva, urine, faeces, skin odour ('sniff and tell') and hair, using either microscopy or PCR on blood sample as reference test. Methods: We searched on PubMed, EMBASE, African Journals Online and Cochrane Infectious Diseases from inception until 19 January 2021 for relevant primary studies. A random effects model was used to estimate the overall performance of various diagnostic methods on different types of specimen. Results: Eighteen studies providing 30 data sets were included in the meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic OR (DOR) of PCR were 84.5% (95% CI 79.3% to 88.6%), 97.3% (95% CI 95.3% to 98.5%) and 184.9 (95% CI 95.8 to 356.9) in saliva, respectively; 57.4% (95% CI 41.4% to 72.1%), 98.6% (95% CI 97.3% to 99.3%) and 47.2 (95% CI 22.1 to 101.1) in urine, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity and DOR of rapid diagnostic test for malaria in urine was 59.8% (95% CI 40.0% to 76.9%), 96.9% (95% CI 91.0% to 99.0%) and 30.8 (95% CI:23.5 to 40.4). Conclusion: In settings where PCR is available, saliva and urine samples should be considered for PCR-based malaria diagnosis only if blood samples cannot be collected. The performance of rapid diagnostic testing in the urine is limited, especially its sensitivity. Malaria testing on non-invasively collected specimen still needs substantial improvement.
Keywords : malaria public Health
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Journal articles
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-03452028
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Submitted on : Friday, November 26, 2021 - 5:14:18 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 21, 2022 - 12:00:02 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, February 27, 2022 - 8:01:10 PM

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Celestin Danwang, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jacob Souopgui, Jean Gaudart, Jean Cyr yombi, et al.. Accuracy of malaria diagnostic tests performed on non-invasively collected samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Global Health, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2021, 6 (6), pp.e005634. ⟨10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005634⟩. ⟨inserm-03452028⟩

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