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Immunité naturelle : structure et fonction des toll-like receptors

Abstract : The innate immune system provides the first line of defence against infection. Through a limited number of germline-encoded receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), innate cells recognize and are activated by highly conserved structures expressed by large group of microorganisms called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs are involved either in recognition (scavenger receptors, C-type lectins) or in cell activation (Toll-like receptors or TLR, helicases and NOD molecules). TLRs play a pivotal role in cell activation in response to PAMPs. TLR are type I transmembrane proteins characterized by an intracellular Toll/IL 1 receptor homology domain that are expressed by innate immune cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells), cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, fibroblasts). In all the cell types analyzed, TLR agonists, alone or in combination with costimulatory molecules, induce cell activation. The crucial role played by TLR in immune cell activation has been detailed in dendritic cells. A TLR-dependent activation of dendritic cells is required to induce their maturation and migration to regional lymph nodes and to activate naïve T cells. The ability of different cell types to respond to TLR agonists is related to the pattern of expression of the TLRs and its regulation as well as their intracellular localization. Recent studies suggest that the nature of the endocytic and signaling receptors engaged by PAMPs may determine the nature of the immune response generated against the microbial molecules, highlighting the role of TLRs as molecular interfaces between innate and adaptive immunity. In this review are summarized the main biological properties of the TLR molecules.
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Contributor : Céline Beauvillain Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, November 19, 2021 - 11:10:31 AM
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yves Delneste, Celine Beauvillain, Pascale Jeannin. Immunité naturelle : structure et fonction des toll-like receptors. médecine/sciences, EDP Sciences, 2007, 23 (1), pp.67 - 74. ⟨10.1051/medsci/200723167⟩. ⟨inserm-03436201⟩



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