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Journal Articles Archives of cardiovascular diseases Year : 2021

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children mimicking Kawasaki disease

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Abstract

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been characterized by high transmission rates and high mortality in adults with predisposing factors, including age>70 years, obesity, diabetes, systemic hypertension and other underlying diseases. During the second week of viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome can occur and carries high mortality. Unlike most common respiratory viruses, children seem to be less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and generally develop mild disease with low mortality. However, clusters of severe shock associated with high levels of cardiac biomarkers and unusual vasoplegia requiring inotropes, vasopressors and volume loading have recently been described. Both the clinical symptoms (i.e. high and persistent fever, gastrointestinal disorders, skin rash, conjunctival injection and dry cracked lips) and the biological signs (e.g. elevated C-reactive protein/procalcitonin and high levels of ferritinaemia) mimicked Kawasaki disease. In most cases, intravenous immunoglobin therapy improved cardiac function and led to full recovery within a few days. Adjunctive steroid therapy and sometimes biotherapy (e.g. anti-interleukin 1Ra and anti-interleukin 6 monoclonal antibodies) were often necessary. Although almost all children fully recovered within a week, some of them later developed coronary artery dilation or aneurysm. Thus, a new "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children" related to SARS-CoV-2 has recently been described. Similarities with Kawasaki disease and the physiopathology of this syndrome still need further exploration.
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Dates and versions

inserm-03408069 , version 1 (28-10-2021)

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Jean Christophe Mercier, Naïm Ouldali, Isabelle Melki, Romain Basmaci, Michael Levy, et al.. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children mimicking Kawasaki disease. Archives of cardiovascular diseases, 2021, 114 (5), pp.426-433. ⟨10.1016/j.acvd.2021.04.005⟩. ⟨inserm-03408069⟩
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