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[Myocardial injury in coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19): main pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical utility of cardiac biomarkers]

Abstract : Covid-19 is responsible for myocardial injury in many infected patients, which is associated with severe disease and critical illness. The mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 may cause myocardial damage involve direct effect of the virus in cardiac cells and indirect effect due to the clinical consequences of Covid-19. Cardiomyocytes are well known to express Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 receptors (ACE-2) to facilitate the virus cell entry, which could explain the occurrence of myocarditis, functional alterations in the myocardium, and more rarely, myocardial infarction. Myocardial injury may also be secondary to systemic inflammation or coagulopathy due to complicated Covid-19. The existence of a cardio-intestinal axis with alteration of tryptophan metabolism in the small bowel leading first to colitis and then to systemic inflammation has also been evoked to explain the myocardial injury. Morphological and metabolic disturbances of the heart during the Covid-19 are associated with elevated concentrations of cardiac blood biomarkers, mainly troponins and natriuretic peptides. The determination of these biomarkers has proven to be very useful for diagnosis, prognosis, and risk stratification. Indeed, recent data demonstrated that about 20% of infected patients admitted to the hospital have elevated troponin or BNP levels, and Covid-19 patients with elevated troponin concentrations beyond the diagnostic threshold (99th percentile) were associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, after more than a year of a unique global pandemic, it is now clearly established that myocardial injury during Covid-19 is frequent and strongly contributes to the severity of the disease. Cardiac alterations secondary to direct infection of cardiac cells by SARS-CoV-2 or to the clinical consequences of Covid-19 are associated with elevated levels of cardiac biomarkers in blood, whose measurement is crucial in clinical decision making.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 15, 2021 - 8:07:55 AM
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Saïd Kamel, A. Raynor, S. Zozor, G. Lacape, V. Brunel, et al.. [Myocardial injury in coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19): main pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical utility of cardiac biomarkers]. Annales de Biologie Clinique, John Libbey Eurotext, 2021, 79 (3), pp.219-231. ⟨10.1684/abc.2021.1642⟩. ⟨inserm-03344395⟩



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