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Long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery in patients with bi-allelic mutations in the POMC, LEPR, and MC4R genes

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Gene mutations in the leptin-melanocortin signaling cascade lead to hyperphagia and severe early onset obesity. In most cases, multimodal conservative treatment (increased physical activity, reduced caloric intake) is not successful to stabilize body weight and control hyperphagia. OBJECTIVES: To examine bariatric surgery as a therapeutic option for patients with genetic obesity. SETTING: Three major academic, specialized medical centers. METHODS: In 3 clinical centers, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of bariatric surgery performed in 8 patients with monogenic forms of obesity with bi-allelic variants in the genes LEPR (n = 5), POMC (n = 2), and MC4R (n = 1). RESULTS: In this group of patients with monogenic obesity, initial bariatric surgery was performed at a median age of 19 years (interquartile range [IQR], 16-23.8 yr). All patients initially experienced weight loss after each bariatric surgery, which was followed by substantial weight regain. In total, bariatric surgery led to a median maximum reduction of body weight of -21.5 kg (IQR, -36.3 to -2.9 kg), median percent excess weight loss (%EWL) of -47.5 %EWL (IQR, -57.6 to -28.9 %EWL). This body weight reduction was followed by median weight regain of 24.1 kg (IQR: 10.0 to 42.0 kg), leading to a final weight change of -24.2 % EWL (IQR: -37.6 to -5.4 %EWL) after a maximum duration of 19 years post surgery. In one patient, bariatric surgery was accompanied by significant complications, including vitamin deficiencies and hernia development. CONCLUSION: The indication for bariatric surgery in patients with monogenic obesity based on bi-allelic gene mutations and its benefit/risk balance has to be evaluated very cautiously by specialized centers. Furthermore, to avoid an unsuccessful operation, preoperative genetic testing of patients with a history of early onset obesity might be essential, even more since novel pharmacological treatment options are expected.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-03344376
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 15, 2021 - 7:34:30 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, November 16, 2021 - 4:25:03 AM

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C. Poitou, L. Puder, B. Dubern, P. Krabusch, L. Genser, et al.. Long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery in patients with bi-allelic mutations in the POMC, LEPR, and MC4R genes. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, Elsevier, 2021, 17 (8), pp.1449-1456. ⟨10.1016/j.soard.2021.04.020⟩. ⟨inserm-03344376⟩

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