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Histoplasmosis of the Central Nervous System: A Case Series between 1990 and 2019 in French Guiana

Abstract : Disseminated histoplasmosis is the most frequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness in French Guiana. Paradoxically, central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been scarcely described. We aimed to identify CNS histoplasmosis in our territory. We conducted an observational, multicentric, descriptive, and retrospective study including patients with proven or probable CNS histoplasmosis according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MGS). The study population consisted of patients admitted in one of the hospitals of French Guiana between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2019. During the study period, 390 cases of HIV-associated histoplasmosis were recorded, in which six of them had CNS infections with Histoplasma capsulatum. The male to female sex ratio was 0.25, and the median age at diagnosis was 37.5 years. The median CD4 count was 42 cells/mm 3 ([IQR: 29-60]). All patients had disseminated histoplasmosis. Usual signs of meningitis were observed in three patients and focal signs in four patients. One patient had no neurological signs. The median time between the first cerebral symptoms and diagnosis was 22.4 days (IQR 9.5-36.2). Two patients died within a month after diagnosis. In conclusion, few proven CNS localizations of histoplasmosis were observed on 30-year study in French Guiana. This low proportion suggests that the documentation of CNS involvement is often not ascertained for lack of awareness of this particular presentation, and for lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools.
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 2, 2021 - 4:20:40 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 11:56:02 AM
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Loïc Epelboin, Aïda Dione, Alexandra Serris, Denis Blanchet, Bastien Bidaud, et al.. Histoplasmosis of the Central Nervous System: A Case Series between 1990 and 2019 in French Guiana. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2021, 105 (1), pp.125 - 129. ⟨10.4269/ajtmh.20-1486⟩. ⟨inserm-03332381⟩



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