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Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of repeated oral administration of 5-fluorocytosine in healthy dogs

Abstract : Background: 5-fluorocytosine is a pyrimidine and a fluorinated cytosine analog mainly used as an antifungal agent. It is a precursor of 5-fluorouracil, which possesses anticancer properties. To reduce systemic toxicity of 5-fluorouracil during chemotherapy, 5-fluorocytosine can be used as a targeted anticancer agent. Expression of cytosine deaminase by a viral vector within a tumor allows targeted chemotherapy by converting 5-fluorocytosine into the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil. However, little is known about the tolerance of 5-fluorocytosine in dogs after prolonged administration. Results: In three healthy Beagle dogs receiving 100 mg/kg of 5-fluorocytosine twice daily for 14 days by oral route, noncompartmental pharmacokinetics revealed a terminal elimination half-life of 164.5 ± 22.5 min at day 1 and of 179.2 ± 11.5 min, after 7 days of administration. Clearance was significantly decreased between day 1 and day 7 with 0.386 ± 0.031 and 0.322 ± 0.027 ml/min/kg, respectively. Maximal plasma concentration values were below 100 µg/ml, which is considered within the therapeutic margin for human patients. 5-fluorouracil plasma concentration was below the limit of detection at all time points. The main adverse events consisted of depigmented, ulcerated, exudative, and crusty cutaneous lesions 10 to 13 days after beginning 5-fluorocytosine administration. The lesions were localized to the nasal planum, the lips, the eyelids, and the scrotum. Histological analyses were consistent with a cutaneous lupoid drug reaction. Complete healing was observed 15 to 21 days after cessation of 5-fluorocytosine. No biochemical or hematological adverse events were noticed. Conclusions: Long term administration of 5-fluorocytosine was associated with cutaneous toxicity in healthy dogs. It suggests that pharmacotherapy should be adjusted to reduce the toxicity of 5-fluorocytosine in targeted chemotherapy.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, August 4, 2021 - 4:36:36 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 25, 2022 - 4:26:05 PM
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Jérémy Béguin, Matthias Kohlhauer, Eve Laloy, Frédérique Degorce, Baptiste Moreau, et al.. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of repeated oral administration of 5-fluorocytosine in healthy dogs. BMC Veterinary Research, BioMed Central, 2021, 17 (1), pp.220. ⟨10.1186/s12917-021-02927-5⟩. ⟨inserm-03313802⟩



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