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Impact of rural versus urban setting on kidney markers: a cross-sectional study in South-Kivu, DRCongo

Abstract : Background: Most studies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been conducted in urban settings. They relied on GFR estimated from serum creatinine alone and on the inexpensive, convenient urinary dipstick to assess proteinuria. The dipstick for proteinuria has not been directly compared with the gold standard albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a large-sized study in SSA. We hereby assessed the influence of rural versus urban location on the level, interpretation, and diagnostic performance of proteinuria dipstick versus ACR. Methods: In a cross-sectional population-based study of CKD in both urban (n = 587) and rural (n = 730) settings in South-Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we assessed the prevalence, performance (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value) and determinants of a positive dipstick proteinuria as compared with albuminuria (ACR). Albuminuria was subdivided into: A1 (< 30 mg/g creatinine), A2 (30 to 299 mg/g creatinine) and A3 (≥ 300 mg/g creatinine). Results: The overall prevalence of positive dipstick proteinuria (≥ 1+) was 9.6 % (95 % CI, 7.9-11.3) and was higher in rural than in urban residents (13.1 % vs. 4.8 %, p < 0.001), whereas the prevalence of albuminuria (A2 or A3) was similar in both sites (6 % rural vs. 7.6 % urban, p = 0.31). In both sites, dipstick proteinuria ≥ 1 + had a poor sensitivity (< 50 %) and positive predictive value (< 11 %) for the detection of A2 or A3. The negative predictive value was 95 %. Diabetes [aOR 6.12 (1.52-24.53)] was a significant predictor of A3 whereas alkaline [aOR 7.45 (3.28-16.93)] and diluted urine [aOR 2.19 (1.35-3.57)] were the main predictors of positive dipstick proteinuria. Conclusions: ACR and dipstick proteinuria have similar positivity rates in the urban site whereas, in the rural site, dipstick was 2-fold more often positive than ACR. The poor sensitivity and positive predictive value of the dipstick as compared with ACR makes it unattractive as a screening tool in community studies of CKD in SSA.
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Submitted on : Friday, July 30, 2021 - 3:35:24 PM
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Mannix Imani Masimango, Michel P Hermans, Espoir Bwenge Malembaka, Pierre Wallemacq, Ernest Kiswaya Sumaili, et al.. Impact of rural versus urban setting on kidney markers: a cross-sectional study in South-Kivu, DRCongo. BMC Nephrology, BioMed Central, 2021, 22 (1), pp.234. ⟨10.1186/s12882-021-02431-w⟩. ⟨inserm-03310647⟩



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