Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

Risk of lung cancer among women in relation to lifetime history of tobacco smoking: a population-based case-control study in France (the WELCA study)

Abstract : Background: This study aims to provide new insights on the role of smoking patterns and cigarette dependence in female lung cancer, and to examine differences by histological subtype. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study in the great Paris area among women including 716 incident cases diagnosed between 2014 and 2017 and 757 age-matched controls. Detailed data on smoking history was collected during in-person interviews to assess intensity and duration of tobacco smoking, time since cessation, smoking habits (depth of smoke inhalation, use of filter, type of tobacco, and type of cigarettes) and Fagerström test for cigarette dependence. The comprehensive smoking index (CSI), a score modelling the combined effects of intensity, duration and time since quitting smoking was determined for each subject. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (95%CI) of lung cancer associated with smoking variables. Results: Lung cancer risk increased linearly with intensity and duration of tobacco smoking while it decreased with time since cessation, to reach the risk in never-smokers after 20 years of abstinence. The combined effect of intensity and duration of tobacco smoking was more than multiplicative (p-interaction 0.012). The OR in the highest vs the lowest quartile of CSI was 12.64 (95%CI 8.50; 18.80) (p-trend < 0.001). The risk of small cell or squamous cell carcinomas increased with the CSI more sharply than the risk of adenocarcinomas. Deep smoke inhalation, dark vs blond tobacco, conventional vs light cigarettes, and unfiltered vs filtered cigarettes, as well as having mixed smoking habits, were found to be independent risk factors. Having high cigarette addiction behaviours also increased the risk after adjusting for CSI. Conclusion: This study provides additional insights on the effects of tobacco smoking patterns on lung cancer risk among women.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadata
Contributor : Odile Malbec Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Thursday, June 17, 2021 - 1:55:33 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, June 26, 2022 - 9:21:35 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Saturday, September 18, 2021 - 6:34:54 PM


Publisher files allowed on an open archive


Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License



Jennifer Rusmaully, Nastassia Tvardik, Diane Martin, Régine Billmann, Sylvie Cénée, et al.. Risk of lung cancer among women in relation to lifetime history of tobacco smoking: a population-based case-control study in France (the WELCA study). BMC Cancer, BioMed Central, 2021, 21 (1), pp.711. ⟨10.1186/s12885-021-08433-z⟩. ⟨inserm-03263558⟩



Record views


Files downloads