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Risks of severe hyponatremia in children receiving hypotonic fluids

Abstract : Intravenous fluids are frequently used in hospitalized children. Hypotonic fluids have been the standard of care in pediatrics for many years. This might be explained by the empiricism of early recommendations favoring fluids with dextrose, but an insufficient amount of sodium. The risk of hyponatremia (<135mmol/L) might be increased by the occurrence of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in the course of common acute diseases (e.g., bronchiolitis, acute gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis) in children. Severe hyponatremia (<130mmol/L) is often associated with neurologic complications leading to sequelae or even death. Over the last few years, hyponatremia induced by hypotonic fluids has been increasingly reported, and significant progress has been made in the understanding of cerebral edema and osmotic demyelination. Several randomized clinical trials have shown weak but significant evidence that isotonic fluids were superior to hypotonic solutions in preventing hyponatremia. However, clinical practices have not changed much in France, as suggested by the analysis of intravenous fluids ordered from the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) central pharmacy (PCH) in 2017. Therefore, it would be advisable that national guidelines be released under the French Health Authorities regarding the safe infusion of infants and children.
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Jean-Christophe Mercier, L. Titomanlio, R. Basmaci, Jean Gaschignard. Risks of severe hyponatremia in children receiving hypotonic fluids. Archives de Pédiatrie, Elsevier, 2020, 27 (8), pp.474-479. ⟨10.1016/j.arcped.2020.08.009⟩. ⟨inserm-03226765⟩



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