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Regulation of Brain Cholesterol: What Role Do Liver X Receptors Play in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

Abstract : Liver X Receptors (LXR) alpha and beta are two members of nuclear receptor superfamily documented as endogenous cholesterol sensors. Following conversion of cholesterol in oxysterol, both LXR isoforms detect intracellular concentrations and act as transcription factors to promote expression of target genes. Among their numerous physiological roles, they act as central cholesterollowering factors. In the central nervous system (CNS), cholesterol has been shown to be an essential determinant of brain function, particularly as a major constituent of myelin and membranes. In the brain, LXRs act as cholesterol central regulators, and, beyond this metabolic function, LXRs have additional roles such as providing neuroprotective effects and lowering neuroinflammation. In many neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), dysregulations of cholesterol and oxysterol have been reported. In this paper, we propose to focus on recent advances in the knowledge of the LXRs roles on brain cholesterol and oxysterol homeostasis, neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and their putative involvement in neurodegenerative disorders. We will discuss their potential use as candidates for both molecular diagnosis and as promising pharmacological targets in the treatment of ALS, AD, or MS patients.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 16, 2021 - 8:04:36 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, October 14, 2021 - 12:08:02 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, June 17, 2021 - 8:05:27 PM

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Kevin Mouzat, Aleksandra Chudinova, Anne Polge, Jovana Kantar, William Camu, et al.. Regulation of Brain Cholesterol: What Role Do Liver X Receptors Play in Neurodegenerative Diseases?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 2019, 20 (16), pp.3858. ⟨10.3390/ijms20163858⟩. ⟨inserm-03171292⟩

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