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Survey by the French Medicine Agency (ANSM) of the imaging protocol, detection rate, and safety of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in case of negative or equivocal 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT: 1084 examinations

Abstract : Introduction: Despite growing evidence of a superior diagnostic performance of 68Ga-PSMA-11 over 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET/CT, the number of PET/CT centres able to label on site with gallium-68 is still currently limited. Therefore, patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer frequently undergo FCH as the 1st-line PET/CT. Actually, the positivity rate (PR) of a second-line PSMA-11 PET/CT in case of negative FCH PET/CT has only been reported in few short series, in a total of 185 patients. Our aims were to check (1) whether the excellent PR reported with PSMA-11 is also obtained in BCR patients whose recent FCH PET/CT was negative or equivocal; (2) in which biochemical and clinical context a high PSMA-11 PET/CT PR may be expected in those patients, in particular revealing an oligometastatic pattern; (3) whether among the various imaging protocols for PSMA-11 PET/CT used in France, one yields a significantly highest PR; (4) the tolerance of PSMA-11. Patients and methods: Six centres performed 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CTs during the first 3 years of its use in France. Prior to each PET/CT, the patient's data were submitted prospectively for authorisation to ANSM, the French Medicine Agency. The on-site readings of 1084 PSMA-11 PET/CTs in BCR patients whose recent FCH PET/CTs resulted negative or equivocal were pooled and analysed. Results: (1) The overall PR was 68%; for a median serum PSA level (sPSA) of 1.7 ng/mL, an oligometastatic pattern (1-3 foci) was observed in 31% of the cases overall; (2) PR was significantly related to sPSA (from 41% if < 0.2 ng/mL to 81% if ≥ 2 ng/mL), to patients' age, to initial therapy (64% if prostatectomy vs. 85% without prostatectomy due to frequent foci in the prostate fossa), to whether FCH PET/CT was negative or equivocal (PR = 62% vs. 82%), and to previous BCR (PR = 63% for 1st BCR vs. 72% in case of previous BCR); (3) no significant difference in PR was found according to the imaging protocol: injected activity, administration of a contrast agent and/or of furosemide, dose length product, one single or multiple time points of image acquisition; (4) no adverse event was reported after PSMA-11 injection, even associated with a contrast agent and/or furosemide. Conclusion: Compared with the performance of PSMA-11 PET/CT in BCR reported independently of FCH PET/CT in 6 large published series (n > 200), the selection based on FCH PET/CT resulted in no difference of PSMA-11 PR for sPSA < 1 ng/mL but in a slightly lower PR for sPSA ≥ 1 ng/mL, probably because FCH performs rather well at this sPSA and very occult BCR was over-represented in our cohort. An oligometastatic pattern paving the way to targeted therapy was observed in one fourth to one third of the cases, according to the clinico-biochemical context of the BCR. Systematic dual or triple acquisition time points or administration of a contrast agent and/or furosemide did not bring a significant added value for PSMA-11 PET/CT positivity and should be decided on individual bases.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-03109828
Contributor : Elizabeth Bernardo <>
Submitted on : Thursday, January 14, 2021 - 9:12:26 AM
Last modification on : Sunday, January 17, 2021 - 3:24:53 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, April 15, 2021 - 6:18:32 PM

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Yanna-Marina Chevalme, Lotfi Boudali, Mathieu Gauthé, Caroline Rousseau, Andrea Skanjeti, et al.. Survey by the French Medicine Agency (ANSM) of the imaging protocol, detection rate, and safety of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in case of negative or equivocal 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT: 1084 examinations. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Springer Verlag (Germany), 2021, Online ahead of print. ⟨10.1007/s00259-020-05086-1⟩. ⟨inserm-03109828⟩

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