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Fully automatic segmentation of diffuse large B cell lymphoma lesions on 3D FDG-PET/CT for total metabolic tumour volume prediction using a convolutional neural network

Abstract : Purpose Lymphoma lesion detection and segmentation on whole-body FDG-PET/CT are a challenging task because of the diversity of involved nodes, organs or physiological uptakes. We sought to investigate the performances of a three-dimensional (3D) convolutional neural network (CNN) to automatically segment total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) in large datasets of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods The dataset contained pre-therapy FDG-PET/CT from 733 DLBCL patients of 2 prospective LYmphoma Study Association (LYSA) trials. The first cohort (n = 639) was used for training using a 5-fold cross validation scheme. The second cohort (n = 94) was used for external validation of TMTV predictions. Ground truth masks were manually obtained after a 41% SUVmax adaptive thresholding of lymphoma lesions. A 3D U-net architecture with 2 input channels for PET and CT was trained on patches randomly sampled within PET/CTs with a summed cross entropy and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) loss. Segmentation performance was assessed by the DSC and Jaccard coefficients. Finally, TMTV predictions were validated on the second independent cohort. Results Mean DSC and Jaccard coefficients (± standard deviation) in the validations set were 0.73 ± 0.20 and 0.68 ± 0.21, respectively. An underestimation of mean TMTV by − 12 mL (2.8%) ± 263 was found in the validation sets of the first cohort (P = 0.27). In the second cohort, an underestimation of mean TMTV by − 116 mL (20.8%) ± 425 was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Conclusion Our CNN is a promising tool for automatic detection and segmentation of lymphoma lesions, despite slight underestimation of TMTV. The fully automatic and open-source features of this CNN will allow to increase both dissemination in routine practice and reproducibility of TMTV assessment in lymphoma patients.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-03006852
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Submitted on : Monday, November 16, 2020 - 10:16:04 AM
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Paul Blanc-Durand, Simon Jégou, Salim Kanoun, Alina Berriolo-Riedinger, Caroline Bodet-Milin, et al.. Fully automatic segmentation of diffuse large B cell lymphoma lesions on 3D FDG-PET/CT for total metabolic tumour volume prediction using a convolutional neural network. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Springer Verlag (Germany), 2021, 48, pp.1362-1370. ⟨10.1007/s00259-020-05080-7⟩. ⟨inserm-03006852⟩

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