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SRF-FOXO1 and SRF-NCOA1 Fusion Genes Delineate a Distinctive Subset of Well-differentiated Rhabdomyosarcoma

Abstract : Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) encompasses a heterogenous collection of tumors in which new groups have recently been identified that improved the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. While performing RNA-sequencing in our routine practice, we identified 3 cases of well-differentiated RMS harboring new fusion genes. We also analyzed these tumors through array-comparative genomic hybridization. Clinically, these tumors were deep paraspinal tumors, occurring in neo-nat and young children. The patients underwent resection and adjuvant therapy. At the time of last follow-up (ranging from 12 to 108 mo), they were alive without disease. Histologically, these tumors consisted of well-differentiated rhabdomyoblastic proliferations with nuclear atypia, infiltrative borders, and a specific growth pattern. These tumors harbored new fusion genes involving SRF and either FOXO1 or NCOA1. We compared the expression profiles of these 3 tumors to the expression data of a series of 33 skeletal muscle tumors including embryonal RMSs, alveolar rhandomyosarcomas, RMSs with VGLL2 fusions, RMSs with the myoD1 mutation, EWSR1/FUS-TFCP2 epithelioid and spindle cell RMSs of the bone, and rhabdomyomas with PTCH1 loss. According to clustering analyses, the 3 SRF-fused tumors formed a distinct group with a specific expression profile different from that of the other types of skeletal muscle tumors. Array-comparative genomic hybridization showed a recurrent gain of chromosome 11. These 3 tumors define a new group of RMS associated with a fusion of the SRF gene. FOXO1 rearrangements, usually used to confirm the diagnosis of alveolar RMS and identify poor-outcome RMSs, were identified in a nonalveolar RMS for the first time.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 2, 2020 - 11:11:00 AM
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Marie Karanian, Daniel Pissaloux, Anne Gomez-Brouchet, Carole Chevenet, Francois Le Loarer, et al.. SRF-FOXO1 and SRF-NCOA1 Fusion Genes Delineate a Distinctive Subset of Well-differentiated Rhabdomyosarcoma. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2020, 44 (5), pp.607-616. ⟨10.1097/PAS.0000000000001464⟩. ⟨inserm-02928018⟩

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