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What is AIDS in the Amazon and the Guianas in the 90-90-90 era?

Abstract : Introduction: In the past decade, new diagnostic methods and strategies have appeared, HIV testing efforts and the generalization of antiretroviral therapy may have influenced the number of opportunistic diagnoses and mortality of HIV-infected patients. To test this hypothesis we compiled data on the top opportunistic infections and causes of early death in the HIV cohort of French Guiana. Methods: HIV-infected persons followed in Cayenne, Kourou, and Saint Laurent du Maroni hospitals from 2010 to 2019 were studied. Annual incidence of different opportunistic infections and annual deaths are compiled. For patients with opportunistic infections we calculated the proportion of early deaths. Results: At the time of analysis, among 2 459 patients, (treated and untreated) 90% had a viral load <400 copies, 91% of the patients in the cohort were on antiretroviral treatment, and 94.2% of patients on treatment for over 6 months had undetectable viral loads. Only 9% of patients had CD4 counts under 200 per mm3. Histoplasmosis clearly remained the most frequent (128 cases) opportunistic infection among HIV-infected persons followed by cerebral toxoplasmosis (63 cases) and esophageal candidiasis (41 cases). Cryptococcal meningitis was ranked 5th most frequent opportunistic infection as was tuberculosis (31 cases). The trend for a sharp decline in early deaths continued (3.9% of patients). Conclusions: Despite the successes of antiretrovirals, patients presenting with advanced HIV are still common and they are still at risk of dying. Improved diagnosis, and notably systematic screening with appropriate tools are still important areas of potential progress.
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Submitted on : Monday, August 17, 2020 - 4:41:26 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, August 18, 2020 - 3:23:18 AM

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Mathieu Nacher, Antoine Adenis, Basma Guarmit, Aude Lucarelli, Denis Blanchet, et al.. What is AIDS in the Amazon and the Guianas in the 90-90-90 era?. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2020, 15 (7), pp.e0236368. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0236368⟩. ⟨inserm-02916297⟩

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