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Combined bacterial and fungal targeted amplicon sequencing of respiratory samples: Does the DNA extraction method matter?

Cécile Angebault 1, 2, * Mathilde Payen 1 Paul-Louis Woerther 2, 3 Christophe Rodriguez 4 Françoise Botterel 1, 2
* Corresponding author
1 Unité de Parasitologie-Mycologie [Créteil]
Département de Prévention, Diagnostic et Traitement des Infections [Créteil]
3 Unité de Bactériologie-Hygiène [Créteil]
Département de Prévention, Diagnostic et Traitement des Infections [Créteil]
4 Génomiques - Next-Generation Sequencing Platform [Créteil]
IMRB - Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale
Abstract : Background: High-throughput sequencing techniques are used to analyse the diversity of the respiratory microbiota in health and disease. Although extensive data are available regarding bacterial respiratory microbiota, its fungal component remains poorly studied. This is partly due to the technical issues associated with fungal metagenomics analyses. In this study, we compared two DNA extraction protocols and two fungal amplification targets for combined bacterial and fungal targeted amplicon sequencing analyses of the respiratory microbiota. Methods: Six sputa, randomly selected from routine samples in Mondor Hospital (Creteil, France) and treated anonymously, were tested after bacterial and fungal routine culture. Two of which were spiked with Aspergillus Fumigati and Aspergillus Nigri (105 conidia/mL). After mechanical lysis, DNA was extracted using automated QIAsymphony® extraction (AQE) or manual PowerSoil® MoBio extraction (MPE). DNA yield and purity were compared. DNA extracted from spiked sputa was subjected to (i) real-time PCR for Aspergillus DNA detection and (ii) combined metagenomic analyses targeting barcoded primers for fungal ITS1 and ITS2, and bacterial V1-V2 and V3-V4 16S regions. Amplicon libraries were prepared using MiSeq Reagent V3 kit on Illumina platform. Data were analysed using PyroMIC© and SHAMAN software, and compared with culture results. Results: AQE extraction provided a higher yield of DNA (AQE/MPE DNA ratio = 4.5 [1.3-11]) in a shorter time. The yield of Aspergillus DNA detected by qPCR was similar for spiked sputa regardless of extraction protocol. The extraction moderately impacted the diversity or relative abundances of bacterial communities using targeted amplicon sequencing (2/43 taxa impacted). For fungi, the relative abundances of 4/11 major taxa were impacted and AQE results were closer to culture results. The V1-V2 or V3-V4 and ITS1 or ITS2 targets assessed similarly the diversity of bacterial and fungal major taxa, but ITS2 and V3-V4 detected more minor taxa. Conclusion: Our results showed the importance of DNA extraction for combined bacterial and fungal targeted metagenomics of respiratory samples. The extraction protocol can affect DNA yield and the relative abundances of few bacterial but more fungal taxa. For fungal analysis, ITS2 allowed the detection of a greater number of minor taxa compared with ITS1.
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Cécile Angebault, Mathilde Payen, Paul-Louis Woerther, Christophe Rodriguez, Françoise Botterel. Combined bacterial and fungal targeted amplicon sequencing of respiratory samples: Does the DNA extraction method matter?. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2020, 15 (4), pp.e0232215. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0232215⟩. ⟨inserm-02891713⟩

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