R. Thiebaut, S. Leproust, G. Chene, and R. Gilbert, Effectiveness of prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis: a meta-analysis of individual patients' data, Lancet, vol.369, issue.9556, pp.115-122, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00143965

F. Peyron, R. Mc-leod, and D. Ajzenberg, Congenital toxoplasmosis in France and the United States: one parasite, two diverging approaches, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.11, issue.2, p.5222, 2017.

P. R. Torgerson and P. Mastroiacovo, The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review, Bull World Health Organ, vol.91, issue.7, pp.501-508, 2013.

E. Bissati, K. Levigne, P. Lykins, and J. , Global initiative for congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational and international comparative clinical analysis, Emerg Microb Infect, vol.7, issue.1, p.165, 2018.

Y. A. Maldonado and J. S. Read, Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States, Pediatrics, vol.139, issue.2, 2017.

F. Nogareda, L. Strat, Y. Villena, I. , D. Valk et al., Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women in France, 1980-2020: model-based estimation, Epidemiol Infect, vol.142, issue.8, pp.1661-1670, 2014.

J. G. Montoya, O. Liesenfeld, and . Toxoplasmosis, Lancet, vol.363, issue.9425, pp.1965-1976, 2004.

D. Mario, S. Basevi, V. Gagliotti, and C. , Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue.10, p.6171, 2015.

A. R. Prusa, D. C. Kasper, L. Sawers, E. Walter, M. Hayde et al., Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.11, issue.7, p.5648, 2017.

M. Wallon, F. Peyron, and C. Cornu, Congenital toxoplasma infection: monthly prenatal screening decreases transmission rate and improves clinical outcome at age 3 years, Clin Infect Dis, vol.56, issue.9, pp.1223-1231, 2013.

L. Mandelbrot, F. Kieffer, and R. Sitta, Prenatal therapy with pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine vs spiramycin to reduce placental transmission of toxoplasmosis: a multicenter, randomized trial, Am J Obstet Gynecol, vol.219, issue.4, pp.386-387, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01987714

R. Gilbert and L. Gras, European Multicentre Study on Congenital T. Effect of timing and type of treatment on the risk of mother to child transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, BJOG, vol.110, issue.2, pp.112-120, 2003.

R. Gratzl, G. Sodeck, and P. Platzer, Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in maternal serum and amniotic fluid, Europ J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.21, issue.1, pp.12-16, 2002.

I. R. Dunay, K. Gajurel, R. Dhakal, O. Liesenfeld, and J. G. Montoya, Treatment of toxoplasmosis: historical perspective, animal models, and current clinical practice, Clin Microbiol Rev, vol.31, issue.4, 2018.

P. Valentini, D. Buonsenso, and G. Barone, Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, J Perinatol, vol.35, issue.2, pp.90-94, 2015.

P. Valentini, M. L. Annunziata, and D. F. Angelone, Role of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole association in the mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy, Europ J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.28, issue.3, pp.297-300, 2009.

F. Derouin, Anti-toxoplasmosis drugs, Curr Opin Investig Drugs, vol.2, issue.10, pp.1368-1374, 2001.

M. P. Connolly, G. Haitsma, A. V. Hernandez, and J. E. Vidal, Systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary prophylaxis for prevention of HIVrelated toxoplasmic encephalitis relapse using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Pathog Glob Health, vol.111, issue.6, pp.327-331, 2017.

A. V. Hernandez, P. Thota, and D. Pellegrino, A systematic review and meta-analysis of the relative efficacy and safety of treatment regimens for HIV-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis: is trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole a real option, HIV Med, vol.18, issue.2, pp.115-124, 2017.

H. X. Wei, S. S. Wei, D. S. Lindsay, and H. J. Peng, A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of anti-Toxoplasma gondii medicines in humans, PLoS One, vol.10, issue.9, p.138204, 2015.

Y. Zhang, X. Lin, and F. Lu, Current treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients: a network meta-analysis, Acta Trop, vol.185, pp.52-62, 2018.

E. M. Schoondermark-van-de-ven, W. J. Melchers, J. M. Galama, J. H. Meuwissen, and T. K. Eskes, Prenatal diagnosis and treatment of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infections: an experimental study in rhesus monkeys, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, vol.74, issue.2, pp.183-188, 1997.

F. Kieffer, M. Wallon, P. Garcia, P. Thulliez, F. Peyron et al., Risk factors for retinochoroiditis during the first 2 years of life in infants with treated congenital toxoplasmosis, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol.27, issue.1, pp.27-32, 2008.

W. Foulon, I. Villena, and B. Stray-pedersen, Treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: a multicenter study of impact on fetal transmission and children's sequelae at age 1 year, Am J Obstet Gynecol, vol.180, issue.2, pp.410-415, 1999.

P. Hohlfeld, F. Daffos, and P. Thulliez, Fetal toxoplasmosis: outcome of pregnancy and infant follow-up after in utero treatment, J Pediatr, vol.115, issue.5, pp.765-769, 1989.

M. M. Avelino, W. N. Amaral, and I. M. Rodrigues, Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs, BMC Infect Dis, vol.14, p.33, 2014.

M. Cortina-borja, H. K. Tan, and M. Wallon, Prenatal treatment for serious neurological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational prospective cohort study, PLoS Med, vol.7, issue.10, 2010.

T. R. Olariu, C. Press, J. Talucod, K. Olson, and J. G. Montoya, Congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States: clinical and serologic findings in infants born to mothers treated during pregnancy, Parasite, vol.26, p.13, 2019.

L. Mandelbrot, Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis: perspectives, Gynecol Obstet Fertil, vol.40, issue.10, pp.591-598, 2012.

F. Robert-gangneux, J. B. Murat, H. Fricker-hidalgo, M. P. Brenier-pinchart, J. P. Gangneux et al., The placenta: a main role in congenital toxoplasmosis?, Trends Parasitol, vol.27, issue.12, pp.530-536, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00696856

M. Abbasi, K. Kowalewska-grochowska, M. A. Bahar, R. T. Kilani, B. Winkler-lowen et al., Infection of placental trophoblasts by Toxoplasma gondii, J Infect Dis, vol.188, issue.4, pp.608-616, 2003.

K. S. Harker, N. Ueno, and M. B. Lodoen, Toxoplasma gondii dissemination: a parasite's journey through the infected host, Parasite Immunol, vol.37, issue.3, pp.141-149, 2015.

N. Arora, Y. Sadovsky, T. S. Dermody, and C. B. Coyne, Microbial vertical transmission during human pregnancy, Cell Host Microbe, vol.21, issue.5, pp.561-567, 2017.

J. Couvreur, G. Desmonts, and P. Thulliez, Prophylaxis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Effects of spiramycin on placental infection, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.22, pp.193-200, 1988.

M. H. Bessieres, A. Berrebi, and M. Rolland, Neonatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in a cohort of 165 women infected during pregnancy and influence of in utero treatment on the results of neonatal tests, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, vol.94, issue.1, pp.37-45, 2001.

H. Fricker-hidalgo, M. P. Brenier-pinchart, J. P. Schaal, V. Equy, C. Bost-bru et al., Value of Toxoplasma gondii detection in one hundred thirty-three placentas for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol.26, issue.9, pp.845-846, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00171529

R. Thiebaut, V. Leroy, and A. Alioum, Biases in observational studies of the effect of prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, vol.124, issue.1, pp.3-9, 2006.

G. Desmonts and J. Couvreur, Congenital toxoplasmosis. A prospective study of 378 pregnancies, N Engl J Med, vol.290, issue.20, pp.1110-1116, 1974.

F. Peyron, M. Wallon, C. Liou, and P. Garner, Treatments for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, vol.2, p.1684, 2000.

G. Desmonts and J. Couvreur, Congenital toxoplasmosis. Prospective study of the outcome of pregnancy in 542 women with toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy, Ann Pediatr (Paris), vol.31, issue.10, pp.805-809, 1984.

C. Douche, A. Benabdesselam, F. Mokhtari, L. Mer, and Y. , Value of prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, J Fr Ophtalmol, vol.19, issue.5, pp.330-334, 1996.

J. Excler, H. Maisonneuve, E. Pujol, and J. P. Garin, Depistage de la toxoplasmose acquise chez la femme enceinte et de la toxoplasmose congenitale chez le nouveau-ne, Lyon Med, vol.253, pp.33-38, 1985.

C. Roux, G. Desmonts, M. Gaulier, N. Mulliez, and D. Hery, Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. Results at the maternity department of the Hopital Saint-Antoine in 1972, J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris), vol.4, issue.4, pp.557-569, 1975.

R. Lambotte, Congenital toxoplasmosis. Evaluation of the benefit of prenatal therapy, J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris), vol.5, issue.2, pp.265-269, 1976.

M. Horion, H. Thoumsin, J. Senterre, and R. Lambotte, 20 years of screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. The Liege experience in 20,000 pregnancies, Rev Med Liege, vol.45, issue.10, pp.492-497, 1990.

H. Kraubig, Praventive Behandlung der konnatalen Toxoplasmose, 1966.

B. Knerer, M. Hayde, R. Gratzl, W. Strobl, and A. Pollak, Direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii with polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of fetal toxoplasma infection, Wien Klin Wochenschr, vol.107, issue.4, pp.137-140, 1995.

M. Wallon, M. Lebech, E. Petersen, R. Gilbert, and D. Dunn, Prenatal treatment and the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis: preliminary findings from two cohort studies, Pediatr Res, vol.42, 1997.

R. Gilbert, D. Dunn, and M. Wallon, Ecological comparison of the risks of mother-to-child transmission and clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis according to prenatal treatment protocol, Epidemiol Infect, vol.127, issue.1, pp.113-120, 2001.

R. E. Gilbert, L. Gras, M. Wallon, F. Peyron, A. E. Ades et al., Effect of prenatal treatment on mother to child transmission of Toxoplasma gondii: retrospective cohort study of 554 mother-child pairs in Lyon, France, Int J Epidemiol, vol.30, issue.6, pp.1303-1308, 2001.

L. Gras, R. E. Gilbert, A. E. Ades, and D. T. Dunn, Effect of prenatal treatment on the risk of intracranial and ocular lesions in children with congenital toxoplasmosis, Int J Epidemiol, vol.30, issue.6, pp.1309-1313, 2001.

L. Gras, M. Wallon, and A. Pollak, Association between prenatal treatment and clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis in infancy: a cohort study in 13 European centres, Acta Paediatr, vol.94, issue.12, pp.1721-1731, 2005.

K. Freeman, H. K. Tan, and A. Prusa, Predictors of retinochoroiditis in children with congenital toxoplasmosis: European, prospective cohort study, Pediatrics, vol.121, issue.5, pp.1215-1222, 2008.

R. E. Gilbert, K. Freeman, and E. G. Lago, Ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil compared with Europe, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.2, issue.8, p.277, 2008.

C. Porto, L. Duarte, and E. C. , Association between the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and the classification of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and prenatal treatment in Brazil, Int J Infect Dis, vol.16, issue.7, pp.480-486, 1994.

V. Donadono, G. Saccone, and G. M. Maruotti, Incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Campania: a population-based study on screening, treatment, and outcome, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, vol.240, pp.316-321, 2019.

L. R. Tomasoni, V. Meroni, and C. Bonfanti, Multidisciplinary approach to congenital Toxoplasma infection: an Italian nationwide survey, New Microbiol, vol.37, issue.3, pp.347-354, 2014.

T. Todros, M. G. Oliveri, and P. Verdiglione, Prenatal diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis: a program of regional surveillance, Minerva Ginecol, vol.52, issue.12, pp.123-134, 2000.

A. R. Prusa, D. C. Kasper, A. Pollak, A. Gleiss, T. Waldhoer et al., The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register, Clin Infect Dis, vol.60, issue.2, pp.4-10, 1992.

A. Hotop, H. Hlobil, and U. Gross, Efficacy of rapid treatment initiation following primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy, Clin Infect Dis, vol.54, issue.11, pp.1545-1552, 2012.

Z. Szenasi, Z. Ozsvar, and E. Nagy, Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in Szeged, Hungary Int J Epidemiol, vol.26, issue.2, pp.428-435, 1997.

A. R. Bischoff, L. Friedrich, J. M. Cattan, and F. A. Uberti, Incidence of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis during ten years in a Brazilian Hospital, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol.35, issue.12, pp.1313-1316, 2016.

M. Ricci, H. Pentimalli, R. Thaller, L. Rava, D. Ciommo et al., Screening and prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis: an effectiveness study in a population with a high infection rate, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, vol.14, issue.6, pp.398-403, 2003.

J. Logar, M. Petrovec, and Z. Novak-antolic, Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in Slovenia by serological screening of pregnant women, Scand J Infect Dis, vol.34, issue.3, pp.201-204, 2002.

E. Galanakis, A. Manoura, and M. Antoniou, Outcome of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy following treatment in both pregnancy and early infancy, Fetal Diagn Ther, vol.22, issue.6, pp.444-448, 2007.

M. E. Avci, F. Arslan, and S. Ciftci, Role of spiramycin in prevention of fetal toxoplasmosis, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, vol.29, issue.13, pp.2073-2076, 2016.


J. G. Montoya, Systematic screening and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: is the glass half full or half empty?, Am J Obstet Gynecol, vol.219, issue.4, pp.315-319, 2018.

F. Peyron, L. 'ollivier, C. Mandelbrot, and L. , Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis: diagnosis and treatment recommendations of a French Multidisciplinary Working Group, Pathogens, vol.8, issue.1, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-02070252

V. Meroni, F. Genco, and C. Tinelli, Spiramycin treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women impairs the production and the avidity maturation of T. gondii-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies, Clin Vaccine Immunol, vol.16, issue.10, pp.1517-1520, 2009.

M. Wallon, J. Franck, and P. Thulliez, Accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid, Obstet Gynecol, vol.115, issue.4, pp.727-733, 2010.

C. T. De-oliveira-azevedo, P. E. Do-brasil, L. Guida, L. Moreira, and M. E. , Performance of polymerase chain reaction analysis of the amniotic fluid of pregnant women for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS One, vol.11, issue.4, p.149938, 2016.

Y. Sterkers, F. Pratlong, and S. Albaba, Novel interpretation of molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis according to gestational age at the time of maternal infection, J Clin Microbiol, vol.50, issue.12, pp.3944-3951, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02417656

M. H. Bessieres, A. Berrebi, and S. Cassaing, Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: prenatal and neonatal evaluation of methods used in Toulouse University Hospital and incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis, Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.104, issue.2, pp.389-392, 2009.

N. Ford, Z. Shubber, J. Jao, E. J. Abrams, L. Frigati et al., Safety of cotrimoxazole in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, vol.66, issue.5, pp.512-521, 2014.

R. Kajubi, T. Ochieng, and A. Kakuru, Monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a double-blind, randomised, controlled, superiority trial, Lancet, vol.393, pp.1428-1439, 2019.

A. J. Van-der-ven, E. M. Schoondermark-van-de-ven, and W. Camps, Anti-toxoplasma effect of pyrimethamine, trimethoprim and sulphonamides alone and in combination: implications for therapy, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.38, issue.1, pp.75-80, 1996.

D. Ajzenberg, High burden of congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States: the strain hypothesis?, Clin Infect Dis, vol.54, issue.11, pp.1606-1607, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00920832

D. Ajzenberg, N. Cogne, and L. Paris, Genotype of 86 Toxoplasma gondii isolates associated with human congenital toxoplasmosis, and correlation with clinical findings, J Infect Dis, vol.186, issue.5, pp.684-689, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02077073

J. E. Gomez-marin, D. La-torre, A. Angel-muller, and E. , First Colombian multicentric newborn screening for congenital toxoplasmosis, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.5, issue.5, p.1195, 2011.

. Has-hads, Recommandation en santé publique: Surveillance serologie toxoplasmose et rubéole durant la grossesse

C. Rudin, H. H. Hirsch, R. Spaelti, S. Schaedelin, and T. Klimkait, Decline of seroprevalence and incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis despite changing prevention policy-three decades of cord-blood screening in North-Western Switzerland, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol.37, issue.11, pp.1087-1092, 2018.

R. Mcleod, K. Boyer, and T. Karrison, Outcome of treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis, 1981-2004: the National Collaborative Chicago-Based, Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study, Clin Infect Dis, vol.42, issue.10, pp.1383-1394, 2006.

E. Stillwaggon, C. S. Carrier, M. Sautter, and R. Mcleod, Maternal serologic screening to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis: a decision-analytic economic model, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.5, issue.9, p.1333, 2011.

J. Lykins, X. Li, and P. Levigne, Rapid, inexpensive, fingerstick, wholeblood, sensitive, specific, point-of-care test for anti-toxoplasma antibodies, PLoS Neglect Trop Dis, vol.12, issue.8, p.6536, 2018.