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An Out-of-Patagonia migration explains the worldwide diversity and distribution of Saccharomyces eubayanus lineages

Abstract : Population-level sampling and whole-genome sequences of different individuals allow one to identify signatures of hybridization, gene flow and potential molecular mechanisms of environmental responses. Here, we report the isolation of 160 Saccharomyces eubayanus strains, the cryotolerant ancestor of lager yeast, from ten sampling sites in Patagonia along 2,000 km of Nothofagus forests. Frequency of S. eubayanus isolates was higher towards southern and colder regions, demonstrating the cryotolerant nature of the species. We sequenced the genome of 82 strains and, together with 23 available genomes, performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our results revealed the presence of five different lineages together with dozens of admixed strains. Various analytical methods reveal evidence of gene flow and historical admixture between lineages from Patagonia and Holarctic regions, suggesting the co-occurrence of these ancestral populations. Analysis of the genetic contribution to the admixed genomes revealed a Patagonian genetic origin of the admixed strains, even for those located in the North Hemisphere. Overall, the Patagonian lineages, particularly the southern populations, showed a greater global genetic diversity compared to Holarctic and Chinese lineages, in agreement with a higher abundance in Patagonia. Thus, our results are consistent with a likely colonization of the species from peripheral glacial refugia from South Patagonia. Furthermore, fermentative capacity and maltose consumption resulted negatively correlated with latitude, indicating better fermentative performance in northern populations. Our genome analysis, together with previous reports in the sister species S. uvarum suggests that a S. eubayanus ancestor was adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of Patagonia, a region that provides the ecological conditions for the diversification of these ancestral lineages.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 22, 2020 - 9:37:14 AM
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Roberto Nespolo, Carlos Villarroel, Christian Oporto, Sebastián Tapia, Franco Vega-Macaya, et al.. An Out-of-Patagonia migration explains the worldwide diversity and distribution of Saccharomyces eubayanus lineages. PLoS Genetics, Public Library of Science, 2020, 16 (5), pp.e1008777. ⟨10.1371/journal.pgen.1008777⟩. ⟨inserm-02877129⟩

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