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HIV-1 Tat – TLR4/MD2 interaction drives the expression of IDO-1 in monocytes derived dendritic cells through NF-κB dependent pathway

Abstract : In the present study we showed that HIV-1 Tat protein stimulated the expression of Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) -1 in human monocytes derived dendritic cells (MoDC) but not IDO-2 by acting directly at the cell membrane level. This induction of IDO-1 is dependent on the secondary structure of Tat protein, since stimulation with a chemically oxidized Tat protein loses its capacity to induce the production of IDO-1. Among the variety of candidate receptors described for Tat, we demonstrated that Tat protein interacted physically with TLR4/MD2 complex. Strikingly, blockade of Tat-TLR4 interaction by anti-TLR4 antibodies (clone HTA125), LPS-RS, a known TLR4 antagonist, or by soluble recombinant TLR4/MD2 complex inhibited strongly or totally the capacity of Tat to induce IDO-1 in MoDC while such treatments had no effect on IFN-γ-induced IDO-1. Furthermore, we showed that the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB by Tat is essential for the production of IDO-1 by human MoDC. Indeed, Tat activated NF-κB pathway in MoDC as demonstrated by the phosphorylation of p65 in Tat-treated MoDC. Further, we demonstrate that the stimulation of IDO-1 by Tat or by IFN-γ was totally or partially inhibited in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor respectively. These results suggest that Tat and IFN-γ act probably by two distinct mechanisms to induce the production of IDO-1. Our results clearly demonstrated that, although TLR4 pathway is necessary for Tat-induced IDO-1 in MoDC, it seems not to be sufficient since stable transfection of a functional TLR4/MD2 pathway in HEK or HeLa cell lines which are endogenously defectives for TLR4, did not restore the capacity of Tat to induce IDO-1 while IFN-γ treatment induces IDO-1 in HeLa cells independently of TLR4 pathway. These results suggest the involvement of additional stimuli in addition to TLR4 pathway which remain to be identified. Altogether our results demonstrated that, in human MoDC, HIV-1 Tat protein induced IDO-1 expression and activity in a NF-κB dependent-manner by recruiting TLR4 pathway.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 12, 2020 - 10:28:56 AM
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Elmostafa Bahraoui, Manutea Serrero, Rémi Planès. HIV-1 Tat – TLR4/MD2 interaction drives the expression of IDO-1 in monocytes derived dendritic cells through NF-κB dependent pathway. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2020, 10 (1), pp.8177. ⟨10.1038/s41598-020-64847-y⟩. ⟨inserm-02865932⟩

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