E. Abalos, C. Cuesta, A. L. Grosso, D. Chou, and L. Say, Global and regional estimates of preeclampsia and eclampsia: a systematic review, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol.170, pp.1-7, 2013.

E. A. Steegers, P. Von-dadelszen, J. J. Duvekot, R. Pijnenborg, and . Pre-eclampsia, The Lancet, vol.376, pp.631-644, 2010.

K. S. Khan, D. Wojdyla, L. Say, A. M. Gülmezoglu, and P. Van-look, WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review, The Lancet, vol.367, pp.1066-1074, 2006.

S. Lisonkova, Maternal Morbidity Associated With Early-Onset and Late-Onset Preeclampsia, Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol.124, pp.771-781, 2014.

E. V. Kuklina, C. Ayala, and W. M. Callaghan, Hypertensive Disorders and Severe Obstetric Morbidity in the United States, Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol.113, pp.1299-1306, 2009.

J. O. Lo, J. F. Mission, and A. B. Caughey, Hypertensive disease of pregnancy and maternal mortality, Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.25, pp.124-132, 2013.

K. H. Campbell, Maternal Morbidity and Risk of Death at Delivery Hospitalization, Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol.122, pp.627-633, 2013.

. Acog-committee-on-obstetric-practice, ACOG practice bulletin. Diagnosis and management of preeclampsia and eclampsia, Int J Gynaecol Obstet, vol.33, pp.67-75, 2002.

C. L. Roberts, Population-based trends in pregnancy hypertension and pre-eclampsia: an international comparative study, BMJ Open, vol.1, pp.101-000101, 2011.

A. B. Wallis, A. F. Saftlas, J. Hsia, and H. K. Atrash, Secular Trends in the Rates of Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, and Gestational Hypertension, American Journal of Hypertension, vol.21, pp.521-526, 1987.

C. V. Ananth, K. M. Keyes, and R. J. Wapner, Pre-eclampsia rates in the United States, 1980-2010: age-period-cohort analysis, BMJ, vol.347, pp.6564-6564, 2013.

M. Urquia, Disparities in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among immigrant women giving birth in six industrialised countries, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol.121, pp.1492-1500, 2014.

J. Zwart, Severe maternal morbidity during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium in the Netherlands: a nationwide populationbased study of 371 000 pregnancies, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol.115, pp.842-850, 2008.

M. Philibert, C. Deneux-tharaux, and M. Bouvier-colle, Can excess maternal mortality among women of foreign nationality be explained by suboptimal obstetric care?, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol.115, pp.1411-1418, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00297959

M. Knight, J. J. Kurinczuk, P. Spark, and P. Brocklehurst, on behalf of UKOSS. Inequalities in maternal health: national cohort study of ethnic variation in severe maternal morbidities, BMJ, vol.338, pp.542-542, 2009.

E. Haelterman, R. Qvist, P. Barlow, and S. Alexander, Social deprivation and poor access to care as risk factors for severe preeclampsia, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol.111, pp.25-32, 2003.

J. Gong, D. A. Savitz, C. R. Stein, and S. M. Engel, Pre-eclampsia and maternal ethnicity, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol.26, pp.45-52, 1995.

M. Tanaka, Racial Disparity in Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy in New York State: A 10-Year Longitudinal Population-Based Study, American Journal of Public Health, vol.97, pp.163-170, 2007.

J. Zhang, S. Meikle, and A. Trumble, Severe Maternal Morbidity Associated with Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy in the United States, Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol.22, pp.203-212, 2003.

G. A. Ramos and A. B. Caughey, The interrelationship between ethnicity and obesity on obstetric outcomes, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.193, pp.1089-1093, 2005.

J. L. Stone, Risk factors for severe preeclampsia, Obstet Gynecol, vol.83, pp.357-361, 1994.

S. C. Fisher, S. Y. Kim, A. J. Sharma, R. Rochat, and B. Morrow, Is obesity still increasing among pregnant women? Prepregnancy obesity trends in 20 states, Preventive Medicine, vol.56, pp.372-378, 2003.

N. Heslehurst, Trends in maternal obesity incidence rates, demographic predictors, and health inequalities in 36 821 women over a 15-year period, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol.114, pp.187-194, 2007.

B. Blondel, B. Coulm, C. Bonnet, F. Goffinet, and C. Le-ray, Trends in perinatal health in metropolitan France from 1995 to 2016: Results from the French National Perinatal Surveys, Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction, vol.46, pp.701-713, 2017.

H. M. Salihu, The Superobese Mother and Ethnic Disparities in Preterm Birth, Journal of the National Medical Association, vol.101, pp.1125-1131, 2009.

C. Maric-bilkan, Research Recommendations From the National Institutes of Health Workshop on Predicting, Preventing, and Treating Preeclampsia, 2019.

C. Gonthier, Association between maternal social deprivation and prenatal care utilization: the PreCARE cohort study, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol.17, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01525479

T. Pottecher, Societe Francaise d' Anesthesie et de Reanimation, Societe Francaise de Medicine Perinatale

, J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod, vol.30, pp.121-132, 2001.

S. R. Cole and M. A. Hernán, Fallibility in estimating direct effects, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.31, pp.163-165, 2002.

C. V. Ananth and E. F. Schisterman, Confounding, causality, and confusion: the role of intermediate variables in interpreting observational studies in obstetrics, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.217, pp.167-175, 2017.

M. L. Buis, Direct and indirect effects in a logit model, Stata J, vol.10, pp.11-29, 2010.

R. Erikson, J. H. Goldthorpe, M. Jackson, M. Yaish, and D. R. Cox, On class differentials in educational attainment, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.102, pp.9730-9733, 2005.

H. Autorité-de-santé, Suivi et orientation des femmes enceintes en fonction des situations à risque identifiées, 2016.

M. Linard, Association between inadequate antenatal care utilisation and severe perinatal and maternal morbidity: an analysis in the PreCARE cohort, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol.125, pp.587-595, 2018.

J. M. Snowden, The Impact of maternal obesity and race/ethnicity on perinatal outcomes: Independent and joint effects: Independent & Joint impact-Maternal Obesity & Race, Obesity, vol.24, pp.1590-1598, 2016.

P. Sauvegrain, E. Azria, C. Chiesa-dubruille, and C. Deneux-tharaux, Exploring the hypothesis of differential care for African immigrant and native women in France with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: a qualitative study, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol.124, pp.1858-1865, 2017.

E. A. Howell, N. Egorova, A. Balbierz, J. Zeitlin, and P. L. Hebert, Black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity and site of care, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.214, 2016.

E. A. Howell, N. N. Egorova, A. Balbierz, J. Zeitlin, and P. L. Hebert, Site of delivery contribution to black-white severe maternal morbidity disparity, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.215, pp.143-152, 2016.

M. Opatowski, B. Blondel, B. Khoshnood, and M. Saurel-cubizolles, New index of social deprivation during pregnancy: results from a national study in France, BMJ Open, vol.6, p.9511, 2016.

M. Seijo, Comparison of self-reported and directly measured weight and height among women of reproductive age: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol.97, pp.429-439, 2018.

;. Bourgeois-moine and C. Crenn-hebert, and the team of the CIC-EC 1425 for their help and support during this study. This study was supported by the French Ministry of Health, Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique (PHRC) 2007 and PHRC 2012 (grant number AOM07079). Ayesha Siddiqui received funding in support of her doctoral research in epidemiology from Sorbonne University, Guillaume Ducarme (Beaujon Hospital, Clichy), Candice Estellat (Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, INSERM UMR 1123 and CIC-P 1421