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Natural Antibodies: from First-Line Defense Against Pathogens to Perpetual Immune Homeostasis

Abstract : Natural antibodies (nAbs) are most commonly defined as immunoglobulins present in the absence of pathological conditions or deliberate immunizations. Occurrence of nAbs in germ- and antigen-free mice suggest that their production is driven, at least in part, by self-antigens. Accordingly, nAbs are constituted of natural autoantibodies (nAAbs), and can belong to the IgM, IgG, or IgA subclasses. These nAbs provide immediate protection against infection while the adaptive arm of the immune system mounts a specific and long-term response. Beyond immediate protection from infection, nAbs have been shown to play various functional roles in the immune system, which include clearance of apoptotic debris, suppression of autoimmune and inflammatory responses, regulation of B cell responses, selection of the B cell repertoires, and regulation of B cell development. These various functions of nAbs are afforded by their reactivity, which is broad, cross-reactive, and shown to recognize evolutionarily fixed epitopes shared between foreign and self-antigens. Furthermore, nAbs have unique characteristics that also contribute to their functional roles and set them apart from antigen-specific antibodies. In further support for the role of nAbs in the protection against infections and in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, the therapeutic preparation of polyclonal immunoglobulins, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), rich in nAbs is commonly used in the replacement therapy of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies and in the immunotherapy of a large number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here, we review several topics on nAbs features and functions, and therapeutic applications in human diseases.
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Contributor : Bayry Jagadeesh <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, May 5, 2020 - 6:19:21 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 3:48:33 AM

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Mohan Maddur, Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes, Jordan Dimitrov, Michel Kazatchkine, Jagadeesh Bayry, et al.. Natural Antibodies: from First-Line Defense Against Pathogens to Perpetual Immune Homeostasis. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, Humana Press, 2020, 58 (2), pp.213-228. ⟨10.1007/s12016-019-08746-9⟩. ⟨inserm-02564297⟩



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