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Review: Human trophoblast fusion and differentiation: Lessons from trisomy 21 placenta

Abstract : The syncytiotrophoblast layer plays a major role throughout pregnancy, since it is the site of numerous placental functions, including ion and nutrient exchange and the synthesis of steroid and peptide hormones required for fetal growth and development. Inadequate formation and regeneration of this tissue contributes to several pathologies of pregnancy such as intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia, which may lead to iatrogenic preterm delivery in order to prevent fetal death and maternal complications. Syncytiotrophoblast formation can be reproduced in vitro using different models. For the last ten years we have routinely purified villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT) from normal first, second and third trimester placentas and from gestational age-matched Trisomy 21 placentas. We cultured villous CT on plastic dishes to follow the molecular and biochemical aspects of their morphological and functional differentiation. Taking advantage of this unique collection of samples, we here discuss the concept that trophoblast fusion and functional differentiation may be two differentially regulated processes, which are linked but quite distinct. We highlight the major role of mesenchymal-trophoblast cross talk in regulating trophoblast cell fusion. We suggest that the oxidative status of the trophoblast may regulate glycosylation of proteins, including hCG, and thereby modulate major trophoblast cell functions.
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Contributor : Guillaume Pidoux Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, April 27, 2020 - 6:34:08 PM
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Guillaume Pidoux, Pascale Gerbaud, Mélanie Cocquebert, Nadine Segond, Josette Badet, et al.. Review: Human trophoblast fusion and differentiation: Lessons from trisomy 21 placenta. Placenta, Elsevier, 2012, 33, Suppl:S81-86. ⟨10.1016/j.placenta.2011.11.007⟩. ⟨inserm-02556136⟩



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