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Pattern of secretion of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) during pregnancies complicated by fetal aneuploidy, in vivo and in vitro

Abstract : Background: Pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease which circulates as an hetero-tetramer in maternal blood. Its maternal serum concentration in fetal trisomy 21 is decreased during the first trimester, so that PAPP-A is a useful screening biomarker. However, the regulation of PAPP-A placental secretion is unclear. We therefore investigated the secretion of PAPP-A in pregnancies complicated by fetal aneuploidies, both in vivo and in vitro.Methods: Maternal serum collected between 10 WG and 33 WG during 7014 normal pregnancies and 96 pregnancies complicated by fetal trisomy 21, 18, and 13 were assayed for PAPP-A using the Immulite 2000xpi system®. The pregnancies were monitored using ultrasound scanning, fetal karyotyping and placental analysis. Villous cytotrophoblasts were isolated from normal and trisomic placenta and cultured to investigate PAPP-A secretion in vitro (n=6). Results: An increased nuchal translucency during the first trimester is a common feature of many chromosomal defect but each aneuploidy has its own syndromic pattern of abnormalities detectable at the prenatal ultrasound scanning and confirmed at the fetal examination thereafter. PAPP-A levels rise throughout normal pregnancy whereas in trisomy 21, PAPP-A levels were significantly decreased, but only during the first trimester. PAPP-A levels were decreased in trisomy 13 and sharply in trisomy 18, whatever the gestational age. In vitro, PAPP-A secretion was decreased in aneuploidy, and associated with decreased hCG secretion in Trisomy 21 and 18. These biochemical profiles did not appear to be linked to any specific histological lesions affecting the placenta. Conclusions: These profiles may reflect different quantitative and qualitative placental dysfunctions in the context of these aneuploidies.
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Marie Clémence Leguy, Stéphanie Brun, Guillaume Pidoux, Houria Salhi, Agnès Choiset, et al.. Pattern of secretion of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) during pregnancies complicated by fetal aneuploidy, in vivo and in vitro. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, BioMed Central, 2014, ⟨10.1186/1477-7827-12-129⟩. ⟨inserm-02556117⟩

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