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Lenalidomide Enhances Immune Checkpoint Blockade-Induced Immune Response in Multiple Myeloma

Abstract : Purpose: PD-1/PD-L1 signaling promotes tumor growth while inhibiting effector cell-mediated antitumor immune responses. Here, we assessed the impact of single and dual blockade of PD-1/ PD-L1, alone or in combination with lenalidomide, on accessory and immune cell function as well as multiple myeloma cell growth in the bone marrow (BM) milieu. Experimental Design: Surface expression of PD-1 on immune effector cells, and PD-L1 expression on CD138 þ multiple mye-loma cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were determined in BM from newly diagnosed (ND) multiple myelo-ma and relapsed/refractory (RR) multiple myeloma versus healthy donor (HD). We defined the impact of single and dual blockade of PD-1/PD-L1, alone and with lenalidomide, on auto-logous anti-multiple myeloma immune response and tumor cell growth. Results: Both ND and RR patient multiple myeloma cells have increased PD-L1 mRNA and surface expression compared with HD. There is also a significant increase in PD-1 expression on effector cells in multiple myeloma. Importantly, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade abrogates BM stromal cell (BMSC)-induced multiple myeloma growth, and combined blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 with lenalidomide further inhibits BMSC-induced tumor growth. These effects are associated with induction of intracellular expression of IFNg and granzyme B in effector cells. Importantly, PD-L1 expression in multiple myeloma is higher on MDSC than on antigen-presenting cells, and PD-1/PD-L1 blockade inhibits MDSC-mediated multiple myeloma growth. Finally, lenalido-mide with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade inhibits MDSC-mediated immune suppression. Conclusions: Our data therefore demonstrate that checkpoint signaling plays an important role in providing the tumor-promoting , immune-suppressive microenvironment in multiple myeloma, and that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade induces anti-multiple myeloma immune response that can be enhanced by lenalido-mide, providing the framework for clinical evaluation of combination therapy.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 8, 2020 - 9:25:55 AM
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Güllü Görgün, Mehmet Kemal Samur, Kristen B Cowens, Steven Paula, Giada Bianchi, et al.. Lenalidomide Enhances Immune Checkpoint Blockade-Induced Immune Response in Multiple Myeloma. Clinical Cancer Research, American Association for Cancer Research, 2015, 21, pp.4607 - 4625. ⟨10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0200⟩. ⟨inserm-02536335⟩



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