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Utility of anaerobic bottles for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Obligate anaerobes usually account for less than 10% of bacteria recovered from blood cultures (BC). The relevance of routine use of the anaerobic bottle is under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of anaerobic bottles for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: We conducted a 6-month, retrospective, monocentric study in a tertiary hospital. All positive BC were grouped into a single episode of bacteremia when drawn within 7 consecutive days. Bacteremia were classified into contaminants and BSI. Charts of patients with BSI due to obligate anaerobes were studied. RESULTS: A total of 19,739 blood cultures were collected, 2341 of which (11.9%) were positive. Anaerobic bottles were positive in 1528 (65.3%) of all positive BC but were positive alone (aerobic bottles negative) in 369 (15.8%). Overall 1081 episodes of bacteremia were identified, of which 209 (19.3%) had positive anaerobic bottles alone. The majority 126/209 (60.3%) were contaminants and 83 (39.7%) were BSI. BSI due to facultative anaerobes, obligate aerobes and obligate anaerobes were identified in 67 (80.7%), 3 (3.6%) and 13 (15.7%) of these 83 episodes, respectively. BSI due to obligate anaerobic bacteria were reported in 9 patients with gastro-intestinal disease, in 3 with febrile neutropenia and in 1 burned patient. CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobic bottles contributed to the diagnosis of a significant number of episodes of bacteremia. Isolated bacteria were mostly contaminants and non-obligate anaerobic pathogens. Rare BSI due to obligate anaerobes were reported mainly in patients with gastro-intestinal disorders and during febrile neutropenia.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 23, 2020 - 11:48:01 AM
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Matthieu Lafaurie, E d'Anglejan, Jean-Luc Donay, Denis Glotz, Elena Sarfati, et al.. Utility of anaerobic bottles for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. BMC Infectious Diseases, BioMed Central, 2020, 20 (1), pp.142. ⟨10.1186/s12879-020-4854-x⟩. ⟨inserm-02515088⟩



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