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Distribution of Bacterial α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Genes in the Human Gut Microbiome

Abstract : Because of a loss-of-function mutation in the GGTA1 gene, humans are unable to synthetize a1,3-Galactose (Gal) decorated glycans and develop high levels of circulating anti-a1,3-Galactose antibodies (anti-Gal Abs). Anti-Gal Abs have been identified as a major obstacle of organ xenotransplantation and play a role in several host-pathogen relationships including potential susceptibility to infection. Anti-Gal Abs are supposed to stem from immunization against the gut microbiota, an assumption derived from the observation that some pathogens display a1,3-Gal and that antibiotic treatment decreases the level of anti-Gal. However, there is little information to date concerning the microorganisms producing a1,3-Gal in the human gut microbiome. Here, available a1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GT) gene sequences from gut bacteria were selectively quantified for the first time in the gut microbiome shotgun sequences of 163 adult individuals from three published population-based metagenomics analyses. We showed that most of the gut microbiome of adult individuals contained a small set of bacteria bearing a1,3-GT genes. These bacteria belong mainly to the Enterobacteriaceae family, including Escherichia coli, but also to Pasteurellaceae genera, Haemophilus influenza and Lactobacillus species. a1,3-Gal antigens and a1,3-GT activity were detected in healthy stools of individuals exhibiting a1,3-GT bacterial gene sequences in their shotgun data.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 25, 2020 - 11:36:23 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, February 26, 2020 - 1:59:52 AM

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Emmanuel Montassier, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Camille Mathé, Quentin Le Bastard, Venceslas Douillard, et al.. Distribution of Bacterial α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Genes in the Human Gut Microbiome. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers, 2020, 10, pp.3000. ⟨10.3389/fimmu.2019.03000⟩. ⟨inserm-02490517⟩

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