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Jejunal Insulin Signalling Is Increased in Morbidly Obese Subjects with High Insulin Resistance and Is Regulated by Insulin and Leptin

Abstract : Little is known about the jejunal insulin signalling pathways in insulin resistance/diabetes states and their possible regulation by insulin/leptin. We study in jejunum the relation between insulin signalling and insulin resistance in morbidly obese subjects with low (MO-low-IR) or with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2DM)), and the effect of insulin/leptin on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) and the catalytic p110β subunit (p110β) of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) were higher in MO-high-IR than in MO-low-IR. The regulatory p85α subunit of PI3K (p85α)/p110β ratio was lower in MO-high-IR and MO-metf-T2DM than in MO-low-IR. Akt-phosphorylation in Ser473 was reduced in MO-high-IR compared with MO-low-IR. IRS1 and p110-β were associated with insulin and leptin levels. The improvement of body mass index (BMI) and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index) after bariatric surgery was associated with a higher IRS1 and a lower p85α/p110β ratio. IEC (intestinal epithelial cells) incubation with a high glucose + insulin dose produced an increase of p85α and p110β. High dose of leptin produced an increase of IRS1, p85α and p110β. In conclusion, despite the existence of insulin resistance, the jejunal expression of genes involved in insulin signalling was increased in MO-high-IR. Their expressions were regulated mainly by leptin. IRS1 and p85α/p110β ratio was associated with the evolution of insulin resistance after bariatric surgery.
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Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Ailec Ho-Plagaro, Concepción Santiago-Fernandez, Sara Garcia-Serrano, Francisca Rodríguez-Pacheco, et al.. Jejunal Insulin Signalling Is Increased in Morbidly Obese Subjects with High Insulin Resistance and Is Regulated by Insulin and Leptin. Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 2020, 9 (1), pp.196. ⟨10.3390/JCM9010196⟩. ⟨inserm-02490232⟩

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