G. S. Baillie, J. D. Scott, and M. D. Houslay, Compartmentalisation of phosphodiesterases and protein kinase A: opposites attract, FEBS Lett, vol.579, pp.3264-3270, 2005.

K. Benirschke and P. Kaufmann, Pathology of the Human Placenta, 2000.

R. Bernatchez, L. Belkacemi, E. Rassart, G. Daoud, L. Simoneau et al., Differential expression of membrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase isoforms in cytotrophoblast cells and syncytiotrophoblasts of human placenta, Placenta, vol.24, pp.648-657, 2003.

J. L. Bos, Epac proteins: multi-purpose cAMP targets, Trends Biochem. Sci, vol.31, pp.680-686, 2006.

P. P. Burgers, Y. Ma, L. Margarucci, M. Mackey, M. A. Van-der-heyden et al., A small novel A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that localizes specifically protein kinase A-regulatory subunit I (PKA-RI) to the plasma membrane, J. Biol. Chem, vol.287, pp.43789-43797, 2012.

D. W. Carr, R. E. Stofko-hahn, I. D. Fraser, S. M. Bishop, T. S. Acott et al., Interaction of the regulatory subunit (RII) of cAMPdependent protein kinase with RII-anchoring proteins occurs through an amphipathic helix binding motif, J. Biol. Chem, vol.266, pp.14188-14192, 1991.

C. W. Chang, G. D. Chang, C. , and H. , A novel cyclic AMP/Epac1/CaMKI signaling cascade promotes GCM1 desumoylation and placental cell fusion, Mol. Cell. Biol, vol.31, pp.3820-3831, 2011.

S. Charrasse, F. Comunale, M. Fortier, E. Portales-casamar, A. Debant et al., M-cadherin activates Rac1 GTPase through the Rho-GEF trio during myoblast fusion, Mol. Biol. Cell, vol.18, pp.1734-1743, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00212300

C. P. Chen, L. F. Chen, S. R. Yang, C. Y. Chen, C. C. Ko et al., Functional characterization of the human placental fusogenic membrane protein syncytin 2, Biol. Reprod, vol.79, pp.815-823, 2008.

H. Chen and M. L. Cheong, Syncytins: molecular aspects, Cell Fusions: Regulation and Control, pp.117-137, 2011.

V. M. Coghlan, B. A. Perrino, M. Howard, L. K. Langeberg, J. B. Hicks et al., Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein, Science, vol.267, pp.108-111, 1995.

M. Colledge and J. D. Scott, AKAPs: from structure to function, Trends Cell Biol, vol.9, pp.216-221, 1999.

A. Conti, F. Fabbrini, P. D'agostino, R. Negri, D. Greco et al., Altered expression of mitochondrial and extracellular matrix genes in the heart of human fetuses with chromosome 21 trisomy, BMC Genomics, vol.8, p.268, 2007.

C. Coutifaris, L. Kao, H. Sehdev, U. Chin, G. Babalola et al., E-cadherin expression during the differentiation of human trophoblasts, Development, vol.113, pp.767-777, 1991.

E. Dahl, E. Winterhager, O. Traub, and K. Willecke, Expression of gap junction genes, connexin40 and connexin43, during fetal mouse development, Anat. Embryol. (Berl), vol.191, pp.267-278, 1995.

J. De-rooij, F. J. Zwartkruis, M. H. Verheijen, R. H. Cool, S. M. Nijman et al., Epac is a Rap1 guanine-nucleotideexchange factor directly activated by cyclic AMP, Nature, vol.396, pp.474-477, 1998.

M. Delidaki, M. Gu, A. Hein, M. Vatish, and D. K. Grammatopoulos, Interplay of cAMP and MAPK pathways in hCG secretion and fusogenic gene expression in a trophoblast cell line, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol, vol.332, pp.213-220, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00654964

M. L. Dell'acqua and J. D. Scott, Protein kinase A anchoring, J. Biol. Chem, vol.272, pp.12881-12884, 1997.

D. S. Dimitrov, C. C. Broder, E. A. Berger, and R. Blumenthal, Calcium ions are required for cell fusion mediated by the CD4-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein interaction, J. Virol, vol.67, pp.1647-1652, 1993.

D. Diviani and J. D. Scott, AKAP signaling complexes at the cytoskeleton, J. Cell Sci, vol.114, pp.1431-1437, 2001.

K. Dodge and J. D. Scott, AKAP79 and the evolution of the AKAP model, FEBS Lett, vol.476, pp.58-61, 2000.

C. E. Dunk, A. Gellhaus, S. Drewlo, D. Baczyk, A. J. Potgens et al., The molecular role of connexin 43 in human trophoblast cell fusion, Biol. Rep, vol.86, p.115, 2012.

B. Eaton and S. Contractor, In vitro assessment of trophoblast receptors and placental transport mechanisms, The Human Placenta, pp.471-503, 1993.

A. Feliciello, M. E. Gottesman, and E. V. Avvedimento, The biological functions of A-kinase anchor proteins, J. Mol. Biol, vol.308, pp.99-114, 2001.

F. Ferre, M. Breuiller, and L. Cedard, Human placental cAMP phosphodiesterase activity kinetic properties and sensitivity to some drugs and hormones, FEBS Lett, vol.52, pp.295-299, 1975.

I. D. Fraser, S. J. Tavalin, L. B. Lester, L. K. Langeberg, A. M. Westphal et al., A novel lipid-anchored A-kinase Anchoring Protein facilitates cAMP-responsive membrane events, EMBO J, vol.17, pp.2261-2272, 1998.

J. Frendo, L. Cronier, G. Bertin, J. Guibourdenche, M. Vidaud et al., Involvement of connexin 43 in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation, J. Cell Sci, vol.116, pp.3413-3421, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00128436

P. Gerbaud and G. Pidoux, Review: an overview of molecular events occurring in human trophoblast fusion, Placenta, vol.36, pp.35-42, 2015.

M. Gloerich and J. L. Bos, Epac: defining a new mechanism for cAMP action, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol, vol.50, pp.355-375, 2010.

C. Gomez-concha, O. Flores-herrera, S. Olvera-sanchez, M. T. Espinosa-garcia, and F. Martinez, Progesterone synthesis by human placental mitochondria is sensitive to PKA inhibition by H89, Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol, vol.43, pp.1402-1411, 2011.

Z. E. Hausken, V. M. Coghlan, and J. D. Scott, Overlay, ligand blotting, and band-shift techniques to study kinase anchoring, Methods Mol. Biol, vol.88, pp.47-64, 1998.

L. J. Huang, K. Durick, J. A. Weiner, J. Chun, and S. S. Taylor, D-AKAP2, a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein with a putative RGS domain, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.94, pp.11184-11189, 1997.

L. J. Huang, K. Durick, J. A. Weiner, J. Chun, and S. S. Taylor, Identification of a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein that binds both type I and type II regulatory subunits, J. Biol. Chem, vol.272, pp.8057-8064, 1997.

B. Huppertz and J. C. Kingdom, Apoptosis in the trophoblast-role of apoptosis in placental morphogenesis, J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig, vol.11, pp.353-362, 2004.

J. Ilvesaro, K. Vaananen, and J. Tuukkanen, Bone-resorbing osteoclasts contain gap-junctional connexin-43, J. Bone Miner. Res, vol.15, pp.919-926, 2000.

U. B. Kaupp and R. Seifert, Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels, Physiol. Rev, vol.82, pp.769-824, 2002.

H. Kawasaki, G. M. Springett, N. Mochizuki, S. Toki, M. Nakaya et al., A family of cAMP-binding proteins that directly activate Rap1, Science, vol.282, pp.2275-2279, 1998.

G. Keryer, E. Alsat, K. Taskén, E. Brion, and D. , Role of cyclic AMPdependant protein kinases in human villous cytotrophoblast differentiation, Placenta, vol.19, pp.295-314, 1998.

G. Keryer, E. Alsat, K. Tasken, and D. Evain-brion, Cyclic AMPdependent protein kinases and human trophoblast cell differentiation in vitro, J. Cell Sci, vol.111, pp.995-1004, 1998.

J. B. Klarenbeek, J. Goedhart, M. A. Hink, T. W. Gadella, J. et al., A mTurquoise-based cAMP sensor for both FLIM and ratiometric read-out has improved dynamic range, PLoS ONE, vol.6, p.19170, 2011.

H. Kliman, J. Nestler, E. Sermasi, J. Sanger, J. F. Strauss et al., Purification, characterization, and in vitro differenciation of cytotrophoblasts from human term placentae, Endocrinology, vol.118, pp.1567-1582, 1986.

I. Knerr, S. W. Schubert, C. Wich, K. Amann, T. Aigner et al., Stimulation of GCMa and syncytin via cAMP mediated PKA signaling in human trophoblastic cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, FEBS Lett, vol.579, pp.3991-3998, 2005.

H. Li, B. Degenhardt, D. Tobin, Z. X. Yao, K. Tasken et al., Identification, localization, and function in steroidogenesis of PAP7: a peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor-and PKA (RIalpha)-associated protein, Mol. Endocrinol, vol.15, pp.2211-2228, 2001.

J. W. Lin, M. Wyszynski, R. Madhavan, R. Sealock, J. U. Kim et al., Yotiao, a novel protein of neuromuscular junction and brain that interacts with specific splice variants of NMDA receptor subunit NR1, J. Neurosci, vol.18, pp.2017-2027, 1998.

J. Liu, L. Matyakhina, Z. Han, F. Sandrini, T. Bei et al., Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization of human peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and PKA regulatory subunit type 1A (PRKAR1A)-associated protein PAP7, and studies in PRKAR1A mutant cells and tissues, FASEB J, vol.17, pp.1189-1191, 2003.

X. Lu and Y. Kang, Cell fusion as a hidden force in tumor progression, Cancer Res, vol.69, pp.8536-8539, 2009.

C. Lugnier, Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) superfamily: a new target for the development of specific therapeutic agents, Pharmacol. Ther, vol.109, pp.366-398, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00129920

B. Lygren, C. R. Carlson, K. Santamaria, V. Lissandron, T. Mcsorley et al., AKAP complex regulates Ca 2+ re-uptake into heart sarcoplasmic reticulum, EMBO Rep, vol.8, pp.1061-1067, 2007.

S. Matsubara, T. Tamada, and T. Saito, Ultracytochemical localizations of adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase and cyclic 3 ,5 -nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity on the trophoblast in the human placenta. Direct histochemical evidence, Histochemistry, vol.87, pp.505-509, 1987.

G. Mbalaviele, H. Chen, B. F. Boyce, G. R. Mundy, Y. et al., The role of cadherin in the generation of multinucleated osteoclasts from mononuclear precursors in murine marrow, J. Clin. Invest, vol.95, pp.2757-2765, 1995.

C. K. Means, B. Lygren, L. K. Langeberg, A. Jain, R. E. Dixon et al., An entirely specific type I A-kinase anchoring protein that can sequester two molecules of protein kinase A at mitochondria, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.108, 2011.

S. Meuris, B. Polliotti, C. Robyn, and P. Lebrun, Ca2+ entry through L -Type voltage semsitive Ca2+ channels stimulates the release of human chorionic gonadotrophin and placental lactogen by placental explants, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol.1220, pp.101-106, 1994.

A. Midgley, G. Pierce, G. Denau, and J. Gosling, Morphogenesis of syncytiotrophoblast in vivo: an autoradiographic demonstration, Science, vol.141, pp.350-351, 1963.

T. Nakamura and G. H. Gold, A cyclic nucleotide-gated conductance in olfactory receptor cilia, Nature, vol.325, pp.442-444, 1987.

L. Ogren and F. Talamentes, The placenta as an endocrine organ: polypeptides, Physiology of Reproduction, pp.875-945, 1994.

M. Oren-suissa and B. Podbilewicz, Cell fusion during development, Trends Cell Biol, vol.17, pp.537-546, 2007.

P. Pérot, C. Montgiraud, D. Lavillette, and F. Mallet, A comparative portrait of retroviral fusogens and syncytins, Cell Fusions: Regulation and Control, pp.63-115, 2011.

G. Pidoux, P. Gerbaud, J. Dompierre, B. Lygren, T. Solstad et al., A PKA-ezrin-connexin 43 signaling complex controls gap junction communication and thereby trophoblast cell fusion, J. Cell Sci, vol.127, pp.4172-4185, 2014.

G. Pidoux, P. Gerbaud, S. Gnidehou, M. Grynberg, G. Geneau et al., ZO-1 is involved in trophoblastic cells differentiation in human placenta, Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol, vol.298, pp.1517-1526, 2010.

G. Pidoux, P. Gerbaud, O. Marpeau, J. Guibourdenche, F. Ferreira et al., Human placental development is impaired by abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies, Endocrinology, vol.148, pp.5403-5413, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00168635

G. Pidoux, P. Gerbaud, V. Tsatsaris, O. Marpeau, F. Ferreira et al., Biochemical characterization and modulation of LH/CG-receptor during human trophoblast differentiation, J. Cell. Physiol, vol.212, pp.26-35, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00116966

G. Pidoux and K. Tasken, Specificity and spatial dynamics of PKA signaling organized by A kinase anchoring proteins, J. Mol. Endocrinol, vol.44, pp.271-284, 2010.

M. Polito, J. Klarenbeek, K. Jalink, D. Paupardin-tritsch, P. Vincent et al., The NO/cGMP pathway inhibits transient cAMP signals through the activation of PDE2 in striatal neurons, Front. Cell Neurosci, vol.7, p.211, 2013.

N. S. Rote, K. Sato, and K. J. Ryan, Adenyl cyclase in the human placenta, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol.26, pp.618-624, 1971.

R. V. Schillace and J. D. Scott, Association of the type 1 protein phosphatase PP1 with the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220, Curr. Biol, vol.9, pp.80141-80150, 1999.

J. D. Scott and T. Pawson, Cell signaling in space and time: where proteins come together and when they're apart, Science, vol.326, pp.1220-1224, 2009.

Q. Shi, Z. Lei, C. Rao, L. , and J. , Novel role of human chorionic gonadotropin in differentiation of human cytotrophoblasts, Endocrinology, vol.132, pp.1387-1395, 1993.

K. Tasken and E. M. Aandahl, Localized effects of cAMP mediated by distinct routes of protein kinase A, Physiol. Rev, vol.84, pp.137-167, 2004.

K. Tasken, K. B. Andersson, B. S. Skalhegg, K. A. Tasken, V. Hansson et al., Reciprocal regulation of mRNA and protein for subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RI alpha and C alpha) by cAMP in a neoplastic B cell line (Reh), J. Biol. Chem, vol.268, pp.23483-23489, 1993.

K. A. Tasken, P. Collas, W. A. Kemmner, O. Witczak, M. Conti et al., Phosphodiesterase 4D and protein kinase a type II constitute a signaling unit in the centrosomal area, J. Biol. Chem, vol.276, pp.21999-22002, 2001.

K. W. Trotter, I. D. Fraser, G. K. Scott, M. J. Stutts, J. D. Scott et al., Alternative splicing regulates the subcellular localization of A-kinase anchoring protein 18 isoforms, J. Cell Biol, vol.147, pp.1481-1492, 1999.

M. Ul-hussain, Transcriptional regulation of the connexin gene, Connexins: The Gap Junction Proteins, pp.17-23, 2014.

M. Wakelam, The fusion of myoblasts, Biochem. J, vol.15, pp.1-12, 1985.

D. A. Walsh, J. P. Perkins, and E. G. Krebs, An adenosine 3 ,5 -monophosphate-dependant protein kinase from rabbit skeletal muscle, J. Biol. Chem, vol.243, pp.3763-3765, 1968.

M. S. Weedon-fekjaer and K. Taskén, Spatiotemporal dynam of hCG/cAMP signaling and regulation of placental function, Placenta, vol.33, pp.87-91, 2012.

L. M. Xiong, T. R. Lebon, and Y. Fujita-yamaguchi, Characterization of human placental cytosolic adenosine 3' ,5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase by inhibitors and insulin treatment, Endocrinology, vol.126, pp.2102-2109, 1990.

M. Yoshie, K. Kaneyama, K. Kusama, C. Higuma, H. Nishi et al., , 2010.