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True Lies: The Double Life of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Factors in Transcription and DNA Repair

Abstract : Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major DNA repair pathway in eukaryotic cells. NER removes structurally diverse lesions such as pyrimidine dimers, arising upon UV irradiation or bulky chemical adducts, arising upon exposure to carcinogens and some chemotherapeutic drugs. NER defects lead to three genetic disorders that result in predisposition to cancers, accelerated aging, neurological and developmental defects. During NER, more than 30 polypeptides cooperate to recognize, incise, and excise a damaged oligonucleotide from the genomic DNA. Recent papers reveal an additional and unexpected role for the NER factors. In the absence of a genotoxic attack, the promoters of RNA polymerases I- and II-dependent genes recruit XPA, XPC, XPG, and XPF to initiate gene expression. A model that includes the growth arrest and DNA damage 45alpha protein (Gadd45alpha) and the NER factors, in order to maintain the promoter of active genes under a hypomethylated state, has been proposed but remains controversial. This paper focuses on the double life of the NER factors in DNA repair and transcription and describes the possible roles of these factors in the RNA synthesis process.
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Nicolas Le May, Jean-Marc Egly, Frédéric Coin. True Lies: The Double Life of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Factors in Transcription and DNA Repair. Journal of Nucleic Acids , Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2010, 2010, pp.616342. ⟨10.4061/2010/616342⟩. ⟨inserm-02461414⟩

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