G. Simonneau, D. Montani, D. S. Celermajer, C. P. Denton, M. A. Gatzoulis et al., Haemodynamic definitions and updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension, Eur Respir J, p.53, 2019.

M. Humbert, C. Guignabert, S. Bonnet, P. Dorfmuller, J. R. Klinger et al., Pathology and pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension: State of the art and research perspectives, Eur Respir J, p.53, 2019.

A. Armulik, G. Genove, and C. Betsholtz, Pericytes: Developmental, physiological, and pathological perspectives, problems, and promises, Dev Cell, vol.21, pp.193-215, 2011.

A. Armulik, A. Abramsson, and C. Betsholtz, Endothelial/pericyte interactions, Circ Res, vol.97, pp.512-523, 2005.

L. B. Payne, H. Zhao, C. C. James, J. Darden, D. Mcguire et al., The pericyte microenvironment during vascular development, 2019.

W. B. Stallcup, The ng2 proteoglycan in pericyte biology, Adv Exp Med Biol, vol.1109, pp.5-19, 2018.

N. Ricard, L. Tu, L. Hiress, M. Huertas, A. Phan et al., Increased pericyte coverage mediated by endothelial-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 and interleukin-6 is a source of smooth muscle-like cells in pulmonary hypertension, Circulation, vol.129, pp.1586-1597, 2014.

C. Guignabert, C. M. Alvira, T. P. Alastalo, H. Sawada, G. Hansmann et al., Tie2-mediated loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in mice causes pdgf receptor-beta-dependent pulmonary arterial muscularization, Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, vol.297, pp.1082-1090, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00499633

Y. Tamura, C. Phan, L. Tu, L. Hiress, M. Thuillet et al., Ectopic upregulation of membrane-bound il6r drives vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension, J Clin Invest, vol.128, pp.1956-1970, 2018.

L. Tu, A. Desroches-castan, C. Mallet, L. Guyon, A. Cumont et al., Selective bmp-9 inhibition partially protects against experimental pulmonary hypertension, Circ Res, vol.124, pp.846-855, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02007505

A. Huertas, L. Tu, R. Thuillet, L. Hiress, M. Phan et al., Leptin signalling system as a target for pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy, Eur Respir J, vol.45, pp.1066-1080, 2015.

L. Hiress, M. Tu, L. , R. N. Phan, C. Thuillet et al., Proinflammatory signature of the dysfunctional endothelium in pulmonary hypertension. Role of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor/cd74 complex, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.192, pp.983-997, 2015.

L. Tu, F. S. De-man, B. Girerd, A. Huertas, M. C. Chaumais et al., A critical role for p130cas in the progression of pulmonary hypertension in humans and rodents, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.186, pp.666-676, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00905191

L. Tu, L. Dewachter, B. Gore, E. Fadel, P. Dartevelle et al., Autocrine fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling contributes to altered endothelial phenotype in pulmonary hypertension, Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, vol.45, pp.311-322, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00579959

E. Manders, F. Verbeek, and J. A. Aten, Measurement of colocalization of objects in dual-color confocal images, 1993.

L. Ciuclan, O. Bonneau, M. Hussey, N. Duggan, A. M. Holmes et al., A novel murine model of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.184, pp.1171-1182, 2011.

M. Kucia, R. Reca, K. Miekus, J. Wanzeck, W. Wojakowski et al., Trafficking of normal stem cells and metastasis of cancer stem cells involve similar mechanisms: Pivotal role of the sdf-1-cxcr4 axis, Stem Cells, vol.23, pp.879-894, 2005.

J. Bordenave, R. Thuillet, L. Tu, C. Phan, A. Cumont et al., Neutralization of cxcl12 attenuates established pulmonary hypertension in rats, Cardiovasc Res, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02366304

M. Hachet-haas, K. Balabanian, F. Rohmer, F. Pons, C. Franchet et al., Small neutralizing molecules to inhibit actions of the chemokine cxcl12, J Biol Chem, vol.283, pp.23189-23199, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00315588

P. Regenass, D. Abboud, F. Daubeuf, C. Lehalle, P. Gizzi et al., Discovery of a locally and orally active cxcl12 neutraligand (lit-927) with anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model of allergic airway hypereosinophilia, J Med Chem, vol.61, pp.7671-7686, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02158160

R. Ding, D. C. Darland, M. S. Parmacek, D. 'amore, and P. A. , Endothelial-mesenchymal interactions in vitro reveal molecular mechanisms of smooth muscle/pericyte differentiation, Stem Cells Dev, vol.13, pp.509-520, 2004.

A. Q. Sheikh, F. Z. Saddouk, A. Ntokou, R. Mazurek, and D. M. Greif, Cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous regulation of smc progenitors in pulmonary hypertension, Cell Rep, vol.23, pp.1152-1165, 2018.

S. Crnkovic, L. M. Marsh, E. El-agha, R. Voswinckel, B. Ghanim et al., Resident cell lineages are preserved in pulmonary vascular remodeling, J Pathol, vol.244, pp.485-498, 2018.

K. Yuan, M. E. Orcholski, C. Panaroni, E. M. Shuffle, N. F. Huang et al., Activation of the wnt/planar cell polarity pathway is required for pericyte recruitment during pulmonary angiogenesis, Am J Pathol, vol.185, pp.69-84, 2015.

K. Yuan, E. A. Shamskhou, M. E. Orcholski, A. Nathan, S. Reddy et al., Loss of endothelium-derived wnt5a is associated with reduced pericyte recruitment and small vessel loss in pulmonary arterial hypertension, Circulation, vol.139, pp.1710-1724, 2019.

K. Yuan, M. E. Orcholski, N. F. Huang, J. De, and V. A. Perez, In vivo study of human endothelialpericyte interaction using the matrix gel plug assay in mouse, J Vis Exp, 2016.

K. Yuan, N. Y. Shao, J. K. Hennigs, M. Discipulo, M. E. Orcholski et al., Increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression in lung pericytes is associated with reduced endothelial-pericyte interactions and small vessel loss in pulmonary arterial hypertension, Am J Pathol, vol.186, pp.2500-2514, 2016.

Y. T. Chang, C. N. Tseng, P. Tannenberg, L. Eriksson, K. Yuan et al., Perlecan heparan sulfate deficiency impairs pulmonary vascular development and attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, Cardiovasc Res, vol.107, pp.20-31, 2015.

W. B. Stallcup, The ng2 proteoglycan: Past insights and future prospects, J Neurocytol, vol.31, pp.423-435, 2002.

F. Dierick, T. Hery, B. Hoareau-coudert, N. Mougenot, V. Monceau et al., Resident pw1+ progenitor cells participate in vascular remodeling during pulmonary arterial hypertension, Circ Res, vol.118, pp.822-833, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01304194

D. Farkas, D. Kraskauskas, J. I. Drake, A. A. Alhussaini, V. Kraskauskiene et al., Cxcr4 inhibition ameliorates severe obliterative pulmonary hypertension and accumulation of c-kit(+) cells in rats, PLoS One, vol.9, p.89810, 2014.

C. M. Costello, B. Mccullagh, K. Howell, M. Sands, J. A. Belperio et al., A role for the cxcl12 receptor, cxcr7, in the pathogenesis of human pulmonary vascular disease, Eur Respir J, vol.39, pp.1415-1424, 2012.

S. Farha, K. Asosingh, W. Xu, J. Sharp, D. George et al., Hypoxia-inducible factors in human pulmonary arterial hypertension: A link to the intrinsic myeloid abnormalities, Blood, vol.117, pp.3485-3493, 2011.

N. Gambaryan, F. Perros, D. Montani, S. Cohen-kaminsky, M. Mazmanian et al., Targeting of c-kit+ haematopoietic progenitor cells prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, Eur Respir J, vol.37, pp.1392-1399, 2011.

B. N. Mccullagh, C. M. Costello, L. Li, C. O'connell, M. Codd et al., Elevated plasma cxcl12alpha is associated with a poorer prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension, PLoS One, vol.10, p.123709, 2015.

M. Hellstrom, M. Kalen, P. Lindahl, A. Abramsson, and C. Betsholtz, Role of pdgf-b and pdgfr-beta in recruitment of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes during embryonic blood vessel formation in the mouse, Development, vol.126, pp.3047-3055, 1999.

P. Leveen, M. Pekny, S. Gebre-medhin, B. Swolin, E. Larsson et al., Mice deficient for pdgf b show renal, cardiovascular, and hematological abnormalities, Genes Dev, vol.8, pp.1875-1887, 1994.

P. Lindahl, B. R. Johansson, P. Leveen, and C. Betsholtz, Pericyte loss and microaneurysm formation in pdgf-b-deficient mice, Science, vol.277, pp.242-245, 1997.

P. Soriano, Abnormal kidney development and hematological disorders in pdgf beta-receptor mutant mice, Genes Dev, vol.8, pp.1888-1896, 1994.

M. Enge, M. Bjarnegard, H. Gerhardt, E. Gustafsson, M. Kalen et al., Endothelium-specific platelet-derived growth factor-b ablation mimics diabetic retinopathy, EMBO J, vol.21, pp.4307-4316, 2002.

F. Lebrin, S. Srun, K. Raymond, S. Martin, S. Van-den-brink et al., Thalidomide stimulates vessel maturation and reduces epistaxis in individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, Nat Med, vol.16, pp.420-428, 2010.

M. Oshima, H. Oshima, and M. M. Taketo, Tgf-beta receptor type ii deficiency results in defects of yolk sac hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, Dev Biol, vol.179, pp.297-302, 1996.

P. B. Poble, C. Phan, T. Quatremare, J. Bordenave, R. Thuillet et al., Therapeutic effect of pirfenidone in the sugen/hypoxia rat model of severe pulmonary hypertension, FASEB J, vol.33, pp.3670-3679, 2019.

L. M. Yung, I. Nikolic, S. D. Paskin-flerlage, R. S. Pearsall, R. Kumar et al., A selective transforming growth factor-beta ligand trap attenuates pulmonary hypertension, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.194, pp.1140-1151, 2016.

Y. F. Chen, J. A. Feng, P. Li, D. Xing, Y. Zhang et al., Dominant negative mutation of the tgf-beta receptor blocks hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, J Appl Physiol, vol.100, pp.564-571, 1985.

T. Yamazaki, A. Nalbandian, Y. Uchida, W. Li, T. D. Arnold et al., Tissue myeloid progenitors differentiate into pericytes through tgf-beta signaling in developing skin vasculature, Cell Rep, vol.18, pp.2991-3004, 2017.

Y. Ji, S. Chen, B. Xiang, Y. Li, L. Li et al., Jagged1/notch3 signaling modulates hemangioma-derived pericyte proliferation and maturation, Cell Physiol Biochem, vol.40, pp.895-907, 2016.

M. E. Kutcher, A. Y. Kolyada, H. K. Surks, and I. M. Herman, Pericyte rho gtpase mediates both pericyte contractile phenotype and capillary endothelial growth state, Am J Pathol, vol.171, pp.693-701, 2007.