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Modified lipoproteins provide lipids that modulate dendritic cell immune function

Abstract : Both physiological and pathological situations can result in biochemical changes of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Because they can deliver signals to dendritic cells (DC), these modified lipoproteins now appear as regulators of the immune response. Among these modified lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) that accumulate during inflammatory conditions have been extensively studied. Numerous studies have shown that oxLDL induce the maturation of DC, enhancing their ability to activate IFNγ secretion by T cells. LDL treated by secreted phospholipase A(2) also promote DC maturation. Among the bioactive lipids generated by oxidation or phospholipase treatment of LDL, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and some saturated fatty acids induce DC maturation whereas some unsaturated fatty acids or oxidized derivatives have opposite effects. Among other factors, the nuclear receptor peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a crucial role in this regulation. Non-modified lipoproteins also contribute to the regulation of DC function, suggesting that the balance between native and modified lipoproteins, as well as the biochemical nature of the LDL modifications, can regulate the activation threshold of DC. Here we discuss two pathological situations in which the impact of LDL modifications on inflammation and immunity could play an important role. During atherosclerosis, modified LDL accumulating in the arterial intima may interfere with DC maturation and function, promoting a Th1 immune response and a local inflammation favoring the development of the pathology. In patients chronically infected, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) interferes with lipoprotein metabolism resulting in the production of infectious modified lipoproteins. These lipo-viral-particles (LVP) are modified low-density lipoproteins containing viral material that can alter DC maturation and affect specific toll-like receptor signaling. In conclusion, lipoprotein modifications play an important role in the regulation of immunity by delivering signals of danger to DC and modulating their function.
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Laure Perrin-Cocon, Olivier Diaz, Patrice André, Vincent Lotteau. Modified lipoproteins provide lipids that modulate dendritic cell immune function. Biochimie, Elsevier, 2013, 95 (1), pp.103-8. ⟨inserm-02442216⟩



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