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Interleukin-15 and Its Soluble Receptor Mediate the Response to Infliximab in Patients With Crohn's Disease

Abstract : BACKGROUND & AIMS: Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor that is used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated serum levels and cellular expression of inter-leukin (IL)-15 and its receptor (sIL-15Ra) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) treated with infliximab; and the effect on sIL-15Ra secretion by epithelial cells. METHODS: CD patients were given infliximab (n = 40; 3 infusions); 37 healthy controls were studied. Serum levels of IL-15, sIL-15Ra, and complex were determined by radioimmunoassay and cytokine levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-15Ra and A Desintegrin and Metalloproteinase 17 levels were assessed by immunohis-tochemistry. Epithelial cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2) were cultured with infliximab, adalimumab, or etanercept. Patients were classified as responders and nonresponders according to their Crohn's Disease Activity Index and clinical observations. RESULTS: Before infliximab, IL-15 was higher in responders than in controls and nonre-sponders. After infliximab, IL-15 decreased in responders while remaining stable in nonresponders. sIL-15Ra and IL-15/sIL-15Ra complex levels were higher in CD than in controls and increased only in responders after inflix-imab. IL-15Ra and A Desintegrin and Metalloproteinase 17 colocalized in epithelial cells and were higher in CD patients. In vitro, infliximab but not adalimumab and etanercept induced sIL-15Ra secretion by epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Serum level of sIL-15Ra and the IL-15/sIL-15Ra complex increased in responder patients and the response was associated with a decrease of IL-15. Infliximab induced the release of the IL-15 receptor alpha, suggesting a specific modulation of IL-15 and its soluble receptor by reverse signaling through transmembrane tumor necrosis factor alpha.
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Grégory Bouchaud, Erwan Mortier, Mathurin Flamant, Isabelle Barbieux, Ariane Plet, et al.. Interleukin-15 and Its Soluble Receptor Mediate the Response to Infliximab in Patients With Crohn's Disease. Gastroenterology, WB Saunders, 2010, 138 (7), pp.2378-2387. ⟨10.1053/j.gastro.2010.02.044⟩. ⟨inserm-02442031⟩

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