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The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Mono(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (MEHP)-Mediated Cytotrophoblast Differentiation

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Phthalates are environmental contaminants commonly used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products. Recently, exposure to phthalates has been associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, and pregnancy loss. There is limited information about the possible mechanisms linking maternal phthalate exposure and placental development, but one such mechanism may be mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c (PPARc). PPARc belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates, in a ligand-dependent manner, the transcription of target genes. Studies of PPARc-deficient mice have demonstrated its essential role in lipid metabolism and placental development. In the human placenta, PPARc is expressed in the villous cytotrophoblast (VCT) and is activated during its differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the action of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on PPARc activity during in vitro differentiation of VCTs. METHODS: We combined immunofluorescence, PPARc activity/hCG assays, western blotting, and lipidomics analyses to characterize the impacts of physiologically relevant concentrations of MEHP (0.1, 1, and 10 lM) on cultured VCTs isolated from human term placentas. RESULTS: Doses of 0:1 lM and 1 lM MEHP showed significantly lower PPARc activity and less VCT differentiation in comparison with controls, whereas, surprisingly, a 10 lM dose had the opposite effect. MEHP exposure inhibited hCG production and significantly altered lipid composition. In addition, MEHP had significant effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that MEHP has a U-shaped dose-response effect on trophoblast differentiation that is mediated by the PPARc pathway and acts as an endocrine disruptor in the human placenta. https://doi.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 15, 2020 - 11:26:31 AM
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Hussein Shoaito, Julia Petit, Audrey Chissey, Nicolas Auzeil, Jean Guibourdenche, et al.. The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Mono(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (MEHP)-Mediated Cytotrophoblast Differentiation. Environmental Health Perspectives, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2019, 127 (2), pp.027003. ⟨10.1289/EHP3730⟩. ⟨inserm-02440536⟩

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