G. A. Stevens, Global prevalence of vision impairment and blindness: magnitude and temporal trends, Ophthalmology, vol.120, pp.2377-2384, 1990.

R. Mckean-cowdin, Longitudinal changes in visual acuity and health-related quality of life: the Los Angeles Latino Eye study, Ophthalmology, vol.117, pp.1907-1901, 1900.

J. H. Seland, Visual impairment and quality of life in the older European population, the EUREYE study, Acta Ophthalmol, vol.89, pp.608-613, 2011.

V. Daien, Visual acuity thresholds associated with activity limitations in the elderly. The Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l' Age study, Acta Ophthalmol, vol.92, pp.500-506, 2014.

K. Peres, Visual Loss and Subsequent Activity Limitations in the Elderly: The French Three-City Cohort, American journal of public health, vol.107, pp.564-569, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-02417265

X. Zhang, Association between depression and functional vision loss in persons 20 years of age or older in the United States, JAMA ophthalmology, vol.131, pp.573-581, 2005.

I. Carriere, A prospective study of the bi-directional association between vision loss and depression in the elderly, J Affect Disord, vol.151, pp.164-170, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00846126

J. L. Yip, Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study, Br J Ophthalmol, vol.98, pp.377-382, 2014.

D. Pascolini and S. P. Mariotti, Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010, Br J Ophthalmol, vol.96, pp.614-618, 2012.

R. Scientific, Action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and vision impairment, vol.8, p.6569, 2009.

, Universal eye health: a global action plan, 2013.

L. S. Lim, P. Mitchell, J. M. Seddon, F. G. Holz, and T. Y. Wong, Age-related macular degeneration, Lancet, vol.379, pp.1728-1738, 2012.

, A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no, Arch Ophthalmol, vol.119, issue.8, pp.1417-1436, 2001.

E. H. Souied, Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Prevention of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 Study, Ophthalmology, vol.120, pp.1619-1631, 2013.

E. W. Chong, T. Y. Wong, A. J. Kreis, J. A. Simpson, and R. H. Guymer, Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ, vol.335, p.755, 2007.

B. M. Merle, Circulating omega-3 Fatty acids and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol.55, pp.2010-2019, 2014.

J. M. Seddon, Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group, JAMA, vol.272, pp.1413-1420, 1994.

A. Diaz-lopez, Mediterranean Diet, Retinopathy, Nephropathy, and Microvascular Diabetes Complications: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Trial, Diabetes Care, vol.38, pp.2134-2141, 2015.

B. M. Merle, R. E. Silver, B. Rosner, and J. M. Seddon, Adherence to a Mediterranean diet, genetic susceptibility, and progression to advanced macular degeneration: a prospective cohort study, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.102, pp.1196-1206, 2015.

A. Sala-vila, Dietary Marine omega-3 Fatty Acids and Incident Sight-Threatening Retinopathy in Middle-Aged and Older Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: Prospective Investigation From the PREDIMED Trial, JAMA ophthalmology, vol.134, pp.1142-1149, 2016.

M. D. Knudtson, R. Klein, and B. E. Klein, Physical activity and the 15-year cumulative incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Br J Ophthalmol, vol.90, pp.1461-1463, 2006.

J. M. Seddon, J. Cote, N. Davis, and B. Rosner, Progression of age-related macular degeneration: association with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, Arch Ophthalmol, vol.121, pp.785-792, 2003.

M. B. Mcguinness, Physical Activity and Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Literature Review and Metaanalysis, Am J Ophthalmol, vol.180, pp.29-38, 2017.

P. A. Asbell, Age-related cataract, Lancet, vol.365, pp.599-609, 2005.

C. Delcourt, Risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts: the POLA study. Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l' Age, Am J Epidemiol, vol.151, pp.497-504, 2000.

C. Delcourt, J. L. Diaz, A. Ponton-sanchez, and L. Papoz, Smoking and age-related macular degeneration. The POLA Study. Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l' Age, Arch Ophthalmol, vol.116, pp.1031-1035, 1998.

T. O. Obisesan, R. Hirsch, O. Kosoko, L. Carlson, and M. Parrott, Moderate wine consumption is associated with decreased odds of developing age-related macular degeneration in NHANES-1, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol.46, pp.1-7, 1998.

B. E. Klein, R. Klein, and L. L. Ritter, Relationship of drinking alcohol and smoking to prevalence of open-angle glaucoma. The Beaver Dam Eye Study, Ophthalmology, vol.100, pp.1609-1613, 1993.

L. L. Ritter, B. E. Klein, R. Klein, and J. A. Mares-perlman, Alcohol use and lens opacities in the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Arch Ophthalmol, vol.111, pp.113-117, 1993.

S. J. Chen, Prevalence and associated risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan: the Shihpai Eye Study, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol.49, pp.3126-3133, 2008.

A. Arnarsson, Risk factors for five-year incident age-related macular degeneration: the Reykjavik Eye Study, Am J Ophthalmol, vol.142, pp.419-428, 2006.

S. E. Moss, R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. C. Jensen, and S. M. Meuer, Alcohol consumption and the 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam eye study, Ophthalmology, vol.105, pp.789-794, 1998.

A. Z. Fan, Alcohol consumption, drinking pattern, and self-reported visual impairment, Ophthalmic Epidemiol, vol.19, pp.8-15, 2012.

N. P. Pronk, Meeting recommendations for multiple healthy lifestyle factors. Prevalence, clustering, and predictors among adolescent, adult, and senior health plan members, Am J Prev Med, vol.27, pp.25-33, 2004.

W. Poortinga, The prevalence and clustering of four major lifestyle risk factors in an English adult population, Prev Med, vol.44, pp.124-128, 2007.

A. V. Khera, Genetic Risk, Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle, and Coronary Disease, N Engl J Med, vol.375, pp.2349-2358, 2016.

S. A. Claas and D. K. Arnett, The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Curr Cardiol Rep, vol.18, p.56, 2016.

F. Mckenzie, Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study, Medicine, vol.95, p.2850, 2016.

F. B. Hu, Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women, N Engl J Med, vol.345, pp.790-797, 2001.

S. Sabia, Health behaviors from early to late midlife as predictors of cognitive function: The Whitehall II study, Am J Epidemiol, vol.170, pp.428-437, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00406798

M. Loef and H. Walach, The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all cause mortality: a systematic review and metaanalysis, Prev Med, vol.55, pp.163-170, 2012.

D. G. Manuel, Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet, PLoS Med, vol.13, p.1002082, 2016.

K. J. Meyers, Joint Associations of Diet, Lifestyle, and Genes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Ophthalmology, vol.122, pp.2286-2294, 2015.

J. A. Mares, Healthy lifestyles related to subsequent prevalence of age-related macular degeneration, Arch Ophthalmol, vol.129, pp.470-480, 2011.

B. Gopinath, Combined influence of poor health behaviours on the prevalence and 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration, Sci Rep, vol.7, p.4359, 2017.

M. Zins and M. Goldberg, The French CONSTANCES population-based cohort: design, inclusion and follow-up, Eur J Epidemiol, vol.30, pp.1317-1328, 2015.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, R. E. Gangnon, and B. E. Klein, Relation of smoking, drinking, and physical activity to changes in vision over a 20-year period: the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Ophthalmology, vol.121, pp.1220-1228, 2014.

X. Zhang, Smoking and visual impairment among older adults with age-related eye diseases, Prev Chronic Dis, vol.8, p.84, 2011.

X. H. Liu, Association between lutein and zeaxanthin status and the risk of cataract: a meta-analysis, Nutrients, vol.6, pp.452-465, 2014.

C. Delcourt, Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and other carotenoids as modifiable risk factors for age-related maculopathy and cataract: the POLA Study, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol.47, pp.2329-2335, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00069449

V. Jain, M. Jain, M. M. Abdull, and A. Bastawrous, The association between cigarette smoking and primary open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review, International ophthalmology, vol.37, pp.291-301, 2017.

R. Scientific, , vol.8, p.6569, 2018.

J. P. Renard, Nutritional, lifestyle and environmental factors in ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma: an exploratory case-control study, Acta Ophthalmol, vol.91, pp.505-513, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01185029

P. Lin, A. R. Loh, T. P. Margolis, and N. R. Acharya, Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for uveitis, Ophthalmology, vol.117, pp.585-590, 2010.

F. Artaud, Unhealthy behaviours and disability in older adults: three-City Dijon cohort study, BMJ, vol.347, p.4240, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01147229

, Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study, Lancet, vol.389, pp.1885-1906, 2015.

F. Ruiz, High quality standards for a large-scale prospective population-based observational cohort: Constances, BMC Public Health, vol.16, p.877, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01356135

S. Vitale, M. F. Cotch, and R. D. Sperduto, Prevalence of visual impairment in the United States, JAMA, vol.295, pp.2158-2163, 2006.

D. B. Panagiotakos, C. Pitsavos, and C. Stefanadis, Dietary patterns: a Mediterranean diet score and its relation to clinical and biological markers of cardiovascular disease risk, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, vol.16, pp.559-568, 2006.

R. M. Shavelle, D. R. Paculdo, D. J. Strauss, and S. J. Kush, Smoking habit and mortality: a meta-analysis, J Insur Med, vol.40, pp.170-178, 2008.

, International Guide for Monitoring Alcohol Consumption and Related Harm, 2000.

M. J. Azur, E. A. Stuart, C. Frangakis, and P. J. Leaf, Multiple imputation by chained equations: what is it and how does it work?, Int J Methods Psychiatr Res, vol.20, pp.40-49, 2011.

D. Rubin, Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys, 2004.