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Different dynamics of IL-15R activation following IL-15 cis-or trans-presentation

Abstract : Interleukin (IL)-15 is a cytokine critical for the homeostasis and the function of NK cells, NK-T cells, and memory CD8 + T cells. IL-15 signals are delivered through the IL-15Rβ and the common γ (γ c) receptor chains. The third receptor chain, IL-15Rα, confers specificity and high affinity for the cytokine. While IL-15 can activate with high affinity the trimeric receptor expressed by a target cell (cis-presentation), IL-15Rα is also known to trans-present IL-15 with high affinity to target cells expressing the IL-15Rβ/γ c complex. In order to compare the IL-15 cis-and trans-presentation processes, and using a T cell line expressing both IL-15Rα/β/γ c and IL-15Rβ/γ c , we analyzed cell surface receptor chain down-modulation, cytokine internalization and signaling responses induced either with IL-15 (cis-presentation) or with RLI, a protein resulting from fusion between IL-15 and an extended IL-15Rα sushi domain, that mimics trans-presentation. Whereas IL-15 bound with high affinity to IL-15Rα/β/γ c , RLI bound with a similar high affinity to IL-15Rβ/γ c. The kinetics of cell surface IL-15R down-modulation were slower following RLI treatment than after IL-15 treatment, as were the kinetics of RLI internalization, which was slower than that of IL-15. IL-15 and RLI dose-dependently induced the activation of similar signaling pathways. However, the kinetics and duration of these activations were markedly different , RLI-induced signaling, being slower, but more prolonged than that induced by IL-15, although the final proliferative responses at 48 h were similar. These findings collectively indicate that IL-15 cis-and trans-presentation mechanisms lead to different dynamics of receptor activation and signal transduction, with cis-presentation inducing fast and transient responses, and trans-presentation inducing slower, more persistent ones. They provide clues for a better understanding of how IL-15 action is controlled, and how it plays a key role in the coordination between innate and adaptative immunity.
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Harmonie Perdreau, Erwan Mortier, Grégory Bouchaud, Véronique Sole, Yvan Boublik, et al.. Different dynamics of IL-15R activation following IL-15 cis-or trans-presentation. European Cytokine Network, John Libbey Eurotext, 2010, 21 (4), pp.297. ⟨10.1684/ecn.2010.0207⟩. ⟨inserm-02437096⟩

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