Hepatic stress associated with pathologies characterized by disturbed glucose production

Abstract : The liver is an organ with many facets, including a role in energy production and metabolic balance, detoxification and extraordinary capacity of regeneration. Hepatic glucose production plays a crucial role in the maintenance of normal glucose levels in the organism i.e. between 0.7 to 1.1 g/l. The loss of this function leads to a rare genetic metabolic disease named glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), characterized by severe hypoglycemia during short fasts. On the contrary, type 2 diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, partly due to an overproduction of glucose by the liver. Indeed, diabetes is characterized by increased uptake/production of glucose by hepatocytes, leading to the activation of de novo lipogenesis and the development of a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In GSDI, the accumulation of glucose-6 phosphate, which cannot be hydrolyzed into glucose, leads to an increase of glycogen stores and the development of hepatic steatosis. Thus, in these pathologies, hepatocytes are subjected to cellular stress mainly induced by glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity. In this review, we have compared hepatic cellular stress induced in type 2 diabetes and GSDI, especially oxidative stress, autophagy deregulation, and ER-stress. In addition, both GSDI and diabetic patients are prone to the development of hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) that occur on a fatty liver in the absence of cirrhosis. These HCA can further acquire malignant traits and transform into hepatocellular carcinoma. This process of tumorigenesis highlights the importance of an optimal metabolic control in both GSDI and diabetic patients in order to prevent, or at least to restrain, tumorigenic activity during disturbed glucose metabolism pathologies.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 25, 2019 - 3:24:25 PM
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Monika Gjorgjieva, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas. Hepatic stress associated with pathologies characterized by disturbed glucose production. Cell Stress and Chaperones, Springer Verlag, 2019, 3 (3), pp.86-99. ⟨10.15698/cst2019.03.179⟩. ⟨inserm-02379164⟩

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