S. Bruno, . Del-bino, P. Lassota, W. Giareti, and Z. Darzynkiewicz, Inhibitors of proteasesprevent endonucleolysis accompanying apoptotic death of HL-60 leukemic cells and normal thymocytes, Leukemia (Baltimore), vol.6, 1992.

J. A. Hadwiger, C. Wittemberg, H. E. Richardson, M. De-barroslopes, and S. J. Andreed, A family of cyclin homologsthatcontrolthe G1 phasein yeast, Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.86, pp.6255-6259, 1989.

M. K. Squier, A. C. Miller, A. M. Malkinson, and J. J. Cohen, Calpain activation in apoptosis, Cell. Physiol, vol.159, pp.229-237, 1994.

L. Campos, J. P. Rouault, . Sabido, P. Oriol, N. Roubi et al., Highexpression of bcl-2protein in acute myeloid leukemia cells is associated with poor response to chemotherapy, Blood, vol.81, pp.3091-3096, 1993.

L. Monney, I. Otter, R. Olivier, U. Ravn, H. Mirzasaleh et al., Bcl-2overexpression blocksactivation of thedeath protease CPP32/ Yama/Apopain, Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun, vol.221, pp.340-345, 1996.

. R. Chapman, A. D. Whetton, C. M. Chresta, and C. Dive, Characterization of drugresistance mediatedvia thesuppression of apoptosisby Abelsonproteintyrosine kinase, Mol. Pharmacol, vol.48, pp.334-343, 1995.

C. Y. Yan, G. Ferrari, and L. A. Andgreene, N-acetylcysteine-promoted survival of PC12 cells is glutathione-independent but transcriptional-dependent, J. Biol. Chem, vol.270, pp.26827-26832, 1995.

W. Malorni, R. Rivabene, M. T. Santini, G. Rainaldi, and G. Donelli, N-acetyl cysteine prevents TNF-induced mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and viral particle productionin HIV-infectedU937 cells, RedoxRep, vol.1, pp.57-64, 1994.

A. Cossarizza, C. Franceschi, D. Monti, S. Salvioli, E. Bellesia et al., Protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in U937 cells: the role of mitochondria, Exp. Cell Res, vol.220, pp.232-240, 1995.

S. Verhaegen, A. J. Mcgowan, A. R. Brophy, R. S. Fernandes, and T. G. Cotter, Inhibition of apoptosisby antioxidantsin the human HL6O leukemia cell line

, Biochem. Pharmacol, vol.50, pp.1021-1029, 1995.

Q. Chen, K. Yu, N. J. Holbrook, and J. L. Stevens, Activation of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible genegaddl53 by nephrotoxiccysteineconjugatesand dithiothreitol, J. Biol. Chem, vol.267, pp.8207-8212, 1992.

R. Kim, N. Hirabayashi, M. Nishiyama, S. Murakami, and T. Toge, Transfection of gadd153geneintogastriccancercellscanmodulate apoptosis induced by anti cancer agents, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res, vol.37, p.412, 1996.

G. Los, R. Weisman, K. Bentaboul, L. Van-veelen, R. Barton et al., Identification of molecular markers reflecting the extent of injwy induced in human tumora following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, Proc.Am. Assoc.CancerRes, vol.37, p.135, 1996.

B. P. Chen,

C. D. Wolfgang, H. , and T. , Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor inducedby physiologicalstressesand modulatedby gaddl53/ChoplO, Mol. Cell. Biol, vol.16, pp.1157-1168, 1996.

L. F. Liu, DNA topoisomerase poisons as antitumor drugs, Annu. Rev. Biochem, vol.58, pp.351-375, 1989.

L. Dubrez, F. Goldwasser, P. Genne, Y. Pommier, and E. Solary, The role of cell cycle regulation and apoptosis triggering in determining the sensitivity of leukemic cellstotopoisomerase I andUinhibitors, Leukemia(Baltimore), vol.9, pp.1013-1024, 1995.

K. L. King and J. A. Andcidlowski, Cellcycleandapoptosis: commonpathwaysto life anddeath, J. Cell. Biochem, vol.58, pp.175-180, 1995.

W. Meikrantz and R. Schiegel, Apoptosisand the cell cycle, J. Cell. Biochem, vol.58, pp.160-174, 1995.

S. W. Lowe, E. M. Schmitt, S. W. Smith, B. A. Osborne, and T. Jacks, p53 is required for radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes, Nature (Lond.), vol.362, pp.847-849, 1993.

L. Sin, W. K. Nishioka, J. Th'ng, E. M. Bradbury, D. W. Litchfield et al., Premature p34@2 activation required for apoptosis, Science, vol.263, pp.1143-1144, 1994.

R. S. Freeman, S. Estus, J. , and E. M. , Analysis of cell cycle-related gene expressionin postmitotic neurons:selectiveinduction of cyclin Dl during pro grammed cell death, Neuron, vol.12, pp.343-345, 1994.

Q. P. Dou, B. An, and P. L. , Inductionof a retinoblastomaphosphatase activity by anticancerdrugsaccompanies p53-independent G(l) arrestand apoptosis, Proc. Nail. Aced. Sci. USA, vol.92, pp.9019-9023, 1995.

W. Meikrantz, S. Gisselbrecht, S. W. Tam, and R. Schlegel, Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91: 3754â?"3758, 1994.

J. A. Fornace, . Jr, J. Jackman, M. C. Hollander, B. Hoffman-liebermann et al., Oenotoxic-stress-response genesand growth-arrest genes, Ann. NY Aced. Sci, vol.663, pp.139-153, 1992.

M. Selvakurnaran, H. Lin, R. Tjin-tham-sjin, J. C. Reed, D. A. Liebermann et al., Thenovelprimaryresponse geneMyD118andtheprotooncogenes myb, myc,andbcl-2modulate transforming growthfactorbI-inducedapoptosis of myeloid leukemiacells, Mol. Cell. Biol, vol.14, pp.2352-2360, 1994.

1. Tamura, M. Ishihara, M. S. Lamphier, N. Tanaka, I. Oishi et al., AnIRF-l-dependent pathway of DNA damage-induced apoptosis in mitogen-activated T lymphocytes, Nature (Lond.), vol.376, pp.596-599, 1995.

A. I. Fornace, I. Alamo, and M. C. Andhollander, DNA-damage-inducible transcripts in mammalian cells, Proc. Nail. Aced. Sci. USA, vol.85, pp.8800-8804, 1988.

A. J. Fornace, . Jr, D. W. Nebert, M. C. Hollander, J. D. Luethy et al., Mammalian genes coordinately regulated bygrowth arrestsignalsandDNA-damagingagents, Mol. Cell. Biol, vol.9, pp.4196-4203, 1989.

D. Ron and J. F. Habener, CHOP, a novel developmentallyregulatednuclearprotein thatdimerizeswith transcriptionfactorsCIEBPandLAP andfunctionsasadominant negativeinhibitor of genetranscription, GenesDev, vol.6, pp.439-453, 1992.

M. V. Barone, A. Crozat, A. Tabaee, L. Philipson, R. et al., CHOP (GADDJ53) andits oncogenicvariant,TLS-CHOP,haveopposingeffectsontheinductionof G1-S arrest, GenesDev, vol.8, pp.453-464, 1994.

M. Ubeda, X. Z. Wang, H. Zinsner, I. Wu, J. F. Habener et al., Stress inducedbinding of the transcriptionfactor CHOP to a novel DNA control element, Mol. Cell. Biol, vol.16, pp.1479-1489, 1996.

Q. Than, K. A. Lord, I. Alamo, . Jr, M. C. Hollander et al., ThegaddandMyD genes define a novel set of mammalian genes encoding acidic proteins that synergis tically suppress cell growth, Mol. Cell. Biol, vol.14, pp.2361-2371, 1994.

A. D. Friedman, GADDI53/CHOP, a DNA damage-inducibleprotein, reduced CAAT/enhancerbinding proteinactivitiesandincreasedapoptosisin 32D c13mye bid cells, Cancer Res, vol.56, pp.3250-3256, 1996.

J. D. Luethy and N. J. Andholbrook, Activation of thegaddl53promoter by genotoxic agents: a rapid andspecificresponse to DNA damage, CancerRes, vol.52, pp.5-10, 1992.

A. M. Choi, J. Fargnoli, S. 0. Carlson, and N. J. Holbrook, Cell growth inhibition by prostaglandinA2 resultsin elevatedexpressionof gaddl53 mRNA, Exp. Cell. Res, vol.199, pp.85-89, 1992.

L. Nawnovski and M. L. Cleary, Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis associated with terminal differentiationof HL-60 myeloid leukemiacells, Blood, vol.83, pp.2261-2266, 1994.

R. Bertrand, K. W. Kohn, E. Solary, and Y. Pommier, Detectionof apoptosis associatedDNA fragmentationusing a rapid and quantitativefilter elution assay, Drug Dcv. Res, vol.34, pp.138-144, 1995.

S. A. Miller, D. D. Dykes, and H. F. Andpolesky, A simplesaltingoutprocedure for extractingDNA from humannucleatedcells, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.16, p.1215, 1988.

P. Chomczynski and N. Sacchi, Total RNA extraction from eucaryotic cells, Anal. Biochem, vol.162, pp.456-459, 1987.

J. D. Luethy, . J. Fargnoli, J. Park, A. J. Fornace, . Jr et al.,

, American Association for Cancer, 1997.

B. Eymin, L. Dubrez, and M. Allouche,