Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases

Abstract : Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have complex etiologies not fully understood. Both innate and adaptive immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express an invariant TCRa chain (Va7.2-Ja33 in humans and Va19-Ja33 in mice) and recognize the conserved MHC-I-related molecule MR1 presenting bacterial metabolites derived from the synthesis of vitamin B. MAIT cells harbor tissue homing properties and produce inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that MAIT cells may play a key role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we described the current knowledge on MAIT cells in these pathologies, based on patients analyses as well as mouse models. While most of the studies support a deleterious role of MAIT cells in tissue inflammation and destruction, a few reports suggest a protective role of MAIT cells. MAIT cells could represent a new biomarker of disease progression, and a better knowledge of their function might open new avenues for therapeutic strategies based on their manipulation.
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Ophélie Rouxel, Agnès Lehuen. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases. Immunology and Cell Biology, Nature Publishing Group, 2018, 96 (6), pp.618-629. ⟨10.1111/imcb.12011⟩. ⟨inserm-02339443⟩

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