Inactivated antithombin as anticoagulant reversal in a rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass: a potent and potentially safer alternative to protamine

Abstract : Heparin anticoagulation followed by protamine reversal is commonly used in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). As an alternative to protamine, a recombinant inactive antithrombin (riAT) was designed as an antidote to heparin and was previously shown to be as potent as protamine in-vitro. In the present study, riAT was assessed for its ability to neutralize heparin after CPB in a rat model. After 60 min of CPB under heparin, rats received 5 mg/kg protamine, 37.5 mg/kg riAT or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as placebo. Residual anticoagulant activity was assessed using the activated partial thromboplastin time assay before, and 10-30 min after reversion. Haemodynamic monitoring was performed and plasma histamine concentration was also measured. In this model, riAT appeared to be as efficient as protamine in neutralizing heparin. Ten minutes after injection, riAT and protamine both decreased heparin activity, to 1.8 AE 1.3 and 4.5 AE 1.4 u/ ml, respectively (23.1 AE 5.1 u/ml in placebo group). Furthermore, evolution of mean carotid arterial pressure, heart rate and plasma histamine levels was comparable in rats treated with PBS or riAT, while protamine exhibited haemodynamic side effects and increased histamine plasma concentration. Thus, riAT could represent an advantage over protamine in CPB because it efficiently reverses heparin activity without negative effects on haemodynamic parameters and plasma histamine level.
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Elsa Bianchini, Alexandre Sebestyen, Toufik Abache, Yasmine Bourti, Alexandre Fontayne, et al.. Inactivated antithombin as anticoagulant reversal in a rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass: a potent and potentially safer alternative to protamine. British Journal of Haematology, Wiley, 2018, 180 (5), pp.715-720. ⟨10.1111/bjh.15091⟩. ⟨inserm-02296615⟩

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