W. Antonin, C. Holroyd, D. Fasshauer, S. Pabst, G. F. Von-mollard et al., A SNARE complex mediating fusion of late endosomes defines conserved properties of SNARE structure and function, EMBO J, vol.19, pp.6453-6464, 2000.

S. Bhattacharya, B. A. Stewart, B. A. Niemeyer, R. W. Burgess, B. D. Mccabe et al., Members of the synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) family in Drosophila are functionally interchangeable in vivo for neurotransmitter release and cell viability, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.99, pp.13867-13872, 2002.

J. B. Bock, H. T. Matern, A. A. Peden, and R. H. Scheller, A genomic perspective on membrane compartment organization, Nature, vol.409, pp.839-841, 2001.

M. Borisovska, Y. Zhao, Y. Tsytsyura, N. Glyvuk, S. Takamori et al., v-SNAREs control exocytosis of vesicles from priming to fusion, EMBO J, vol.24, pp.2114-2126, 2005.

A. Bracher and W. Weissenhorn, Structural basis for the Golgi membrane recruitment of Sly1p by Sed5p, EMBO J, vol.21, pp.6114-6124, 2002.

D. Brandhorst, D. Zwilling, S. O. Rizzoli, U. Lippert, T. Lang et al., Homotypic fusion of early endosomes: SNAREs do not determine fusion specificity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.103, pp.2701-2706, 2006.

S. Brenner, The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans, Genetics, vol.77, pp.71-94, 1974.

A. T. Brunger, Structure and function of SNARE and SNAREinteracting proteins, Q. Rev. Biophys, vol.38, pp.1-47, 2006.

N. J. Bryant, J. , and D. E. , Vps45p stabilizes the syntaxin homologue Tlg2p and positively regulates SNARE complex formation, EMBO J, vol.20, pp.3380-3388, 2001.

L. N. Carpp, L. F. Ciufo, S. G. Shanks, A. Boyd, and N. J. Bryant, The Sec1p/Munc18 protein Vps45p binds its cognate SNARE proteins via two distinct modes, J. Cell Biol, vol.173, pp.927-936, 2006.

C. M. Carr, E. Grote, M. Munson, F. M. Hughson, and P. J. Novick, Sec1p binds to SNARE complexes and concentrates at sites of secretion, J. Cell Biol, vol.146, pp.333-344, 1999.

Y. A. Chen and R. H. Scheller, SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.2, pp.98-106, 2001.

L. F. Ciufo, J. W. Barclay, R. D. Burgoyne, M. , and A. , , 2005.

, Munc18-1 regulates early and late stages of exocytosis via syntaxinindependent protein interactions, Mol. Biol. Cell, vol.16, pp.470-482

I. Dulubova, S. Sugita, S. Hill, M. Hosaka, I. Fernandez et al., A conformational switch in syntaxin during exocytosis: role of munc18, EMBO J, vol.18, pp.4372-4382, 1999.

I. Dulubova, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Gao, S. W. Min, I. Huryeva et al., How Tlg2p/syntaxin 16 'snares' Vps45, EMBO J, vol.21, pp.3620-3631, 2002.

I. Dulubova, T. Yamaguchi, D. Arac, H. Li, I. Huryeva et al., Convergence and divergence in the mechanism of SNARE binding by Sec1/Munc18-like proteins, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.100, pp.32-37, 2003.

I. Fernandez, J. Ubach, I. Dulubova, X. Zhang, T. C. Sudhof et al., Three-dimensional structure of an evolutionarily conserved N-terminal domain of syntaxin 1A, Cell, vol.94, pp.841-849, 1998.

R. J. Fisher, J. Pevsner, and R. D. Burgoyne, Control of fusion pore dynamics during exocytosis by Munc18, Science, vol.291, pp.875-878, 2001.

D. Gallwitz, J. , and R. , The riddle of the Sec1/Munc-18 proteins-new twists added to their interactions with SNAREs, Trends Biochem. Sci, vol.28, pp.113-116, 2003.

C. G. Giraudo, W. S. Eng, T. J. Melia, and J. E. Rothman, A clamping mechanism involved in SNARE-dependent exocytosis, Science, vol.313, pp.676-680, 2006.

M. E. Graham, A. W. Sudlow, and R. D. Burgoyne, Evidence against an acute inhibitory role of nSec-1 (munc-18) in late steps of regulated exocytosis in chromaffin and PC12 cells, J. Neurochem, vol.69, pp.2369-2377, 1997.

S. D. Harrison, K. Broadie, J. Van-de-goor, and G. M. Rubin, Mutations in the Drosophila Rop gene suggest a function in general secretion and synaptic transmission, Neuron, vol.13, pp.555-566, 1994.

Y. Hata, C. A. Slaughter, and T. C. Sudhof, Synaptic vesicle fusion complex contains unc-18 homologue bound to syntaxin, Nature, vol.366, pp.347-351, 1993.

J. C. Holthuis, B. J. Nichols, and H. R. Pelham, The syntaxin Tlg1p mediates trafficking of chitin synthase III to polarized growth sites in yeast, Mol. Biol. Cell, vol.9, pp.3383-3397, 1998.

C. Hu, M. Ahmed, T. J. Melia, T. H. Sollner, T. Mayer et al., Fusion of cells by flipped SNAREs, vol.300, pp.1745-1749, 2003.

M. B. Jackson and E. R. Chapman, Fusion pores and fusion machines in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct, vol.35, pp.135-160, 2006.

R. Jahn and R. H. Scheller, SNAREs-engines for membrane fusion, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.7, pp.631-643, 2006.

R. Jahn, T. Lang, and T. C. Sudhof, Membrane fusion, Cell, vol.112, pp.519-533, 2003.

T. W. Koh and H. J. Bellen, Synaptotagmin I, a Ca2+ sensor for neurotransmitter release, Trends Neurosci, vol.26, pp.413-422, 2003.

C. F. Latham, J. A. Lopez, S. H. Hu, C. L. Gee, E. Westbury et al., Molecular dissection of the Munc18c/Syntaxin4 interaction: implications for regulation of membrane trafficking, Traffic, vol.7, pp.1408-1419, 2006.

J. A. Mcnew, F. Parlati, R. Fukuda, R. J. Johnston, K. Paz et al., Compartmental specificity of cellular membrane fusion encoded in SNARE proteins, Nature, vol.407, pp.153-159, 2000.

T. J. Melia, T. Weber, J. A. Mcnew, L. E. Fisher, R. J. Johnston et al., Regulation of membrane fusion by the membrane-proximal coil of the t-SNARE during zippering of SNAREpins, J. Cell Biol, vol.158, pp.929-940, 2002.

K. M. Misura, R. H. Scheller, and W. I. Weis, Three-dimensional structure of the neuronal-Sec1-syntaxin 1a complex, Nature, vol.404, pp.355-362, 2000.

P. Novick and R. Schekman, Secretion and cell-surface growth are blocked in a temperature-sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.76, pp.1858-1862, 1979.

F. Parlati, T. Weber, J. A. Mcnew, B. Westermann, T. H. Sollner et al., Rapid and efficient fusion of phospholipid vesicles by the alpha-helical core of a SNARE complex in the absence of an N-terminal regulatory domain, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.96, pp.12565-12570, 1999.

F. Paumet, B. Brugger, F. Parlati, J. A. Mcnew, T. H. Sollner et al., A t-SNARE of the endocytic pathway must be activated for fusion, J. Cell Biol, vol.155, pp.961-968, 2001.

F. Paumet, V. Rahimian, and J. E. Rothman, The specificity of SNARE-dependent fusion is encoded in the SNARE motif, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.101, pp.3376-3380, 2004.

F. Paumet, V. Rahimian, M. Di-liberto, and J. E. Rothman, Concerted auto-regulation in yeast endosomal t-SNAREs, J. Biol. Chem, vol.280, pp.21137-21143, 2005.

R. W. Peng, Decoding the interactions of SM proteins with SNAREs, ScientificWorldJournal, vol.5, pp.471-477, 2005.

R. Peng and D. Gallwitz, Sly1 protein bound to Golgi syntaxin Sed5p allows assembly and contributes to specificity of SNARE fusion complexes, J. Cell Biol, vol.157, pp.645-655, 2002.

R. Peng and D. Gallwitz, Multiple SNARE interactions of an SM protein: Sed5p/Sly1p binding is dispensable for transport, EMBO J, vol.23, pp.3939-3949, 2004.

P. R. Pryor, B. M. Mullock, N. A. Bright, M. R. Lindsay, S. R. Gray et al., Combinatorial SNARE complexes with VAMP7 or VAMP8 define different late endocytic fusion events, EMBO Rep, vol.5, pp.590-595, 2004.

J. E. Richmond, R. M. Weimer, and E. M. Jorgensen, An open form of syntaxin bypasses the requirement for UNC-13 in vesicle priming, Nature, vol.412, pp.338-341, 2001.

C. Rickman and B. Davletov, Arachidonic acid allows SNARE complex formation in the presence of Munc18, Chem. Biol, vol.12, pp.545-553, 2005.

J. Rizo and T. C. Sudhof, Snares and Munc18 in synaptic vesicle fusion, Nat. Rev. Neurosci, vol.3, pp.641-653, 2002.

J. R. Schaub, X. Lu, B. Doneske, Y. K. Shin, and J. A. Mcnew, , 2006.

, Hemifusion arrest by complexin is relieved by Ca(2+)-synaptotagmin I, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol, vol.13, pp.748-750

R. Schekman and P. Novick, 23 genes, 23 years later, S13-S15, 1 p following, vol.116, p.19, 2004.

D. Schutz, F. Zilly, T. Lang, R. Jahn, and D. Bruns, A dual function for Munc-18 in exocytosis of PC12 cells, Eur. J. Neurosci, vol.21, pp.2419-2432, 2005.

B. L. Scott, J. S. Van-komen, H. Irshad, S. Liu, K. A. Wilson et al., Sec1p directly stimulates SNARE-mediated membrane fusion in vitro, J. Cell Biol, vol.167, pp.75-85, 2004.

T. Sollner, S. W. Whiteheart, M. Brunner, H. Erdjument-bromage, S. Geromanos et al., SNAP receptors implicated in vesicle targeting and fusion, Nature, vol.362, pp.318-324, 1993.

J. B. Sorensen, U. Matti, S. H. Wei, R. B. Nehring, T. Voets et al., The SNARE protein SNAP-25 is linked to fast calcium triggering of exocytosis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.99, pp.1627-1632, 2002.

T. C. Sudhof, The synaptic vesicle cycle, Annu. Rev. Neurosci, vol.27, pp.509-547, 2004.

R. B. Sutton, D. Fasshauer, R. Jahn, and A. T. Brunger, Crystal structure of a SNARE complex involved in synaptic exocytosis at 2.4 Å resolution, Nature, vol.395, pp.347-353, 1998.

S. Takamori, M. Holt, K. Stenius, E. A. Lemke, M. Gronborg et al., Molecular anatomy of a trafficking organelle, Cell, vol.127, pp.831-846, 2006.

M. B. Ter-beest, S. J. Chapin, D. Avrahami, and K. E. Mostov, The role of syntaxins in the specificity of vesicle targeting in polarized epithelial cells, Mol. Biol. Cell, vol.16, pp.5784-5792, 2005.

R. F. Toonen and M. Verhage, Vesicle trafficking: pleasure and pain from SM genes, Trends Cell Biol, vol.13, pp.177-186, 2003.

R. F. Toonen, K. J. De-vries, R. Zalm, T. C. Sudhof, and M. Verhage, Munc18-1 stabilizes syntaxin 1, but is not essential for syntaxin 1 targeting and SNARE complex formation, J. Neurochem, vol.93, pp.1393-1400, 2005.

W. C. Tucker, T. Weber, and E. R. Chapman, Reconstitution of Ca2+-regulated membrane fusion by synaptotagmin and SNAREs, Science, vol.304, pp.435-438, 2004.

D. Ungar and F. M. Hughson, SNARE protein structure and function, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol, vol.19, pp.493-517, 2003.

M. Verhage, A. S. Maia, J. J. Plomp, A. B. Brussaard, J. H. Heeroma et al., Synaptic assembly of the brain in the absence of neurotransmitter secretion, Science, vol.287, pp.864-869, 2000.

T. Voets, R. F. Toonen, E. C. Brian, H. De-wit, T. Moser et al., Munc18-1 promotes large dense-core vesicle docking, Neuron, vol.31, pp.581-591, 2001.

T. Weber, B. V. Zemelman, J. A. Mcnew, B. Westermann, M. Gmachl et al., SNAREpins: minimal machinery for membrane fusion, Cell, vol.92, pp.759-772, 1998.

T. Weber, F. Parlati, J. A. Mcnew, R. J. Johnston, B. Westermann et al., SNAREpins are functionally resistant to disruption by NSF and alphaSNAP, J. Cell Biol, vol.149, pp.1063-1072, 2000.

R. M. Weimer, J. E. Richmond, W. S. Davis, G. Hadwiger, M. L. Nonet et al., Defects in synaptic vesicle docking in unc-18 mutants, Nat. Neurosci, vol.6, pp.1023-1030, 2003.

A. L. Williams, S. Ehm, N. C. Jacobson, D. Xu, and J. C. Hay, rsly1 binding to syntaxin 5 is required for endoplasmic reticulum-toGolgi transport but does not promote SNARE motif accessibility, Mol. Biol. Cell, vol.15, pp.162-175, 2004.

M. N. Wu, J. T. Littleton, M. A. Bhat, A. Prokop, and H. J. Bellen, ROP, the Drosophila Sec1 homolog, interacts with syntaxin and regulates neurotransmitter release in a dosage-dependent manner, EMBO J, vol.17, pp.127-139, 1998.

T. Yamaguchi, I. Dulubova, S. W. Min, X. Chen, J. Rizo et al., Sly1 binds to Golgi and ER syntaxins via a conserved N-terminal peptide motif, Dev. Cell, vol.2, pp.295-305, 2002.

B. Yang, M. Steegmaier, L. C. Gonzalez, . Jr, and R. H. Scheller, nSec1 binds a closed conformation of syntaxin1A, J. Cell Biol, vol.148, pp.247-252, 2000.

F. E. Zilly, J. B. Sorensen, R. Jahn, L. , and T. , Munc18-Bound Syntaxin Readily Forms SNARE Complexes with Synaptobrevin in Native Plasma Membranes, PLoS Biol, vol.4, 2006.