Analyse de l’activité d’une équipe mobile psychiatrie-précarité (EMPP) : des urgences médicopsychiatriques dans la rue à la pratique d’hospitalisation à domicile pour des personnes sans domicile

Abstract : CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Since their creation in 2005 in France, mobile mental health outreach teams (EMPP) have been working to improve the health of the homeless who, for 30 to 50% of them, present severe mental disorders. Their missions are defined by ministerial circular's specifications. Few studies have been undertaken in France to analyze the practices of these teams' professionals, nor the characteristics of the populations with whom they are involved. The EMPP described in this paper had in 2010 a greater staff than other French EMPPs. It has 15 full-time staff, including four doctors (two psychiatrists, one GP, one house physician), two nurses, two educators, one social worker, three peer-workers, one secretary and two coordinators. The article analyzes the way of support developed within the range of EMPP's missions defined by the ministerial circular. METHODS: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out using standardized data from four different sources (round sheet, record of activity, record of hospitalization, housing information, interviews conducted by medical and social professionals with patients). Another source of data consists of records describing the operation of the team (reference framework) and annual activities (annual report). RESULTS: The method of care was developed based on a street working, involving a full medical and its relationship with the hospital and a place to live in a semi-community context. The Mobile Mental Health Outreach team documented 318 rounds in 2010, describing 666 contacts among whom 87.9% were followed regularly thereafter. It focuses to a target population. The team actively followed 198 people including 161 for whom a psychiatric diagnosis was done: 48.5% of the patients followed presented schizophrenic-type disorders, 21.8% bipolar disorders and other mood-linked problems, 13% behavioral disorders and 6.2% substance-use disorders. A percentage of 44.9 presented with a physical disease. Among the 89 hospitalizations, 86.5% were motivated by psychiatric disorders and 43% were forced. In about one third of the cases, hospitalizations were motivated by a double indication - psychiatric and physical - and in 13.5% for only a physical indication. Thirty people of the actively followed people had stayed in a halfway house as an alternative to hospitalization, restoring a continuity of care and allowing to resolve social problems that had until then been hopeless. PERSPECTIVES: The strategies developed by this Mobile Health Outreach Team ensure local community medical, psychiatric and social care for "hard to reach" people. The results confirm the interest of the link between the street work, the hospital and the halfway home, both as a living facility and an alternative to hospitalization. They suggest the importance of a critical minimum size for these EMPP that allows them a street work with doctors providing guidance. The presence of a GP is another welcome development because of the severity and the entanglement of somatic and psychiatric problems of these populations.
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Vincent Girard, Aline Sarradon-Eck, Noura Payan, Jean-Pierre Bonin, Sylvain Perrot, et al.. Analyse de l’activité d’une équipe mobile psychiatrie-précarité (EMPP) : des urgences médicopsychiatriques dans la rue à la pratique d’hospitalisation à domicile pour des personnes sans domicile. La Presse Médicale, Elsevier Masson, 2012, 41 (5), pp.e226-e237. ⟨10.1016/j.lpm.2011.09.032⟩. ⟨inserm-02274328⟩

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